Day 022 - 12 Sep 94 - Page 35

     2   Q.   -- than the others?
     3        A.  No, I cannot.
     5   Q.   If you were arguing with someone about this, what sort of
     6        argument could you put against your point of view, that is
     7        what you are asking, Mr. Morris?
     9   MR. MORRIS:  Let me just throw up some things that may be
    10        useful.  For example, as I have said, the differences
    11        between one country and another maybe quite easily
    12        identified.  Here we have a rural population, low fat
    13        diet, whatever, and here we have, you know, people in a
    14        highly industrialised western society, and that kind of
    15        difference may not be so obvious within a particular
    16        country?
    17        A.  That is true.
    19   Q.   So that is one advantage?
    20        A.  It is an advantage.
    22   Q.   Another advantage might be, for example, the China study
    23        that has been briefly alluded to on fat intake and linked
    24        to cancer -- it is Colin Campbell's study which we might
    25        come to a bit later on -- that the intake of fat was very
    26        low in rural China.  I cannot remember if it was the whole
    27        of China but certainly in a great amount of the cases?
    28        A.  Was it not just a province of China?
    30   Q.   I think it was about 65 different provinces of China were
    31        looked at.  But the point was the fat intake was
    32        exceptionally low, down to 15 or 10 per cent of average,
    33        or something, whereas, for example, in the nurses survey
    34        the  -----
    35        A.  Quintiles.
    37   Q.   -- quintiles of the five sections of the fat intake looked
    38        at, the lowest one I do not think was less than 25 per
    39        cent or something.  So, in other words, to see whether fat
    40        was linked to cancer.  That is a case, is it not, where a
    41        population study may have an advantage?
    42        A.  Well, that is not strictly a population study, you
    43        see, that -----
    45   Q.   No, the China one?
    46        A.  Yes, but I think, in fact, did they not just study the
    47        population within that particular group?  They were not
    48        comparing -- population studies are traditionally where
    49        you actually look at differences between different
    50        countries. 
    52   Q.   I think that is what they were doing; they were saying 
    53        this is a study of China and the conclusion were such -- I
    54        do not know; we will have to have a look at that one.
    55        But, just take that as an example, that could be a benefit
    56        of a population study where here you have a very -- it
    57        seems obvious to me -----
    59   MR. JUSTICE BELL:  Start again and put to Dr. Arnott what you
    60        would suggest is the advantage of a population study over

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