Day 065 - 09 Dec 94 - Page 03

     1        received in the classroom, and the researchers concluded
     2        that advertising may have a much more powerful influence
     3        than that, but you will have to excuse me one moment while
     4        I find it.  Is that OK?
     6   Q.   Yes.
     7        A.  If we could look at page 13, please?  This is in
     8        relation to classroom learning of nutrition education.  The
     9        second paragraph refers to reference 90 which is a report
    10        by Iceland 1990, Attitudes to Children in Food; reference
    11        90 refers back to reference 87, where it says that children
    12         -- "they" meaning children, "appear to distance themselves
    13        from classroom lessons and textbook information on
    14        nutrition and are more receptive to message" -- sorry,
    15        I think there is a typo there, it should read, "messages
    16        conveyed by advertising".
    18   Q.   That is to do with the influence of teachers; what about
    19        the parents?
    20        A.  The report, and I have talked about it in greater depth
    21        already in giving my evidence, I have made reference to
    22        research which looks at the effect that advertising has on
    23        children and the influence on what has been termed "pester
    24        power" and the effects that that has in families in
    25        relation to who is choosing which foods for whom.
    26        I believe there is in this report research that does
    27        support that statement.
    29   Q.   I wonder about that, Ms. Dibb, it means going slightly out
    30        of order but no matter.  Can we just, in passing, note what
    31        you say on page 12 in the right-hand column under the
    32        heading "Parental influence:  Parents control to some
    33        degree" -- I emphasise the words "to some degree" -- "the
    34        food eaten in the home and children are also influenced by
    35        parental food choices".  You do not agree that understates
    36        the extent to which food choices within the family are
    37        influenced by the parents above all else?
    38        A.  The influences on children's food choice are very, very
    39        complex.  It is extremely difficult to isolate particular
    40        influences because they are extremely intertwined.  Of
    41        course, parents have an influence.  I am not seeking in any
    42        way to say that they do not.  Certainly that influence will
    43        vary, I think, with age, with circumstance, with
    44        individuals, individual families.
    46   Q.   Can you turn back to your own page 10, which is a piece of
    47        research on which you yourself rely, the last complete
    48        paragraph on that page, a Welsh Study.  Do you have that in
    49        the left-hand column?
    50        A.  Yes. 
    52   Q.   "A Welsh study of preschool children's diets in the early 
    53        1980s found that by the time children were 18 months old
    54        they were eating very much like their parents".  If that
    55        piece of research be accurately reported, where do we find
    56        a place for advertising as a substantial influence directly
    57        on the children's choice of foods?
    58        A.  I think we must be aware here, and it clearly states
    59        that we are talking here about children up to the age of 18
    60        months.  I have just mentioned that age was a significant

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