Day 115 - 06 Apr 95 - Page 03
1 I mean, I have here one or two documents, particularly FAWC
2 reports, which are having some effect. But I must say that
3 I am not over optimistic because some of these improvements
4 are only expressed as codes of practice. Therefore, it
5 makes very difficult to exert some of the reforms that
6 should be implemented.
8 Q. You will have noticed, will you not, from reading
9 Mr. Bowes' evidence, for example, that much of what one
10 might call beneficial animal welfare conditions were in
11 place long before any code came into practice?
12 A. In fact, the progress has not been steady. In the
13 1950s, for instance, one could go back there, the broiler
14 revolution came in. Then there was a reaction with Ruth
15 Harrison's "Animal Machines", and that started to reverse
16 the bad practices that had overtaken, if you like, the
17 traditional practices. Then we had the Bramble Committee
18 and ever since then we have had an effort to reverse the
19 increasing intensification. Sometimes one side has gained,
20 sometimes the other, so that it has not been any steady
21 progress and there have been a lot of regressions.
23 Q. Let me take an example, can I, of what I just put to you
24 which I am not sure that what you have just said is really
25 an answer. Did you notice that Mr. Bowes told us that, so
26 far as his business is concerned, it goes back I think
27 three generations, or two, they have never used dry sow
28 stalls or tethers?
29 A. I noticed that, yes.
31 Q. That their indoor pigs had always been kept on straw?
32 A. I was not quite sure in the context of this case how
33 many of those pigs, how much of what he said was actually
34 relevant to what goes to McDonald's or to other
35 slaughterhouses feeding McDonald's. It seemed to me that a
36 lot of what he said pertained to the RSPCA's Freedom
39 MS. STEEL: Can I just make an interruption which is that
40 Mr. Rampton said: "So far as his business is concerned
41 they have never used dry sow stalls or tethers". If it is
42 Mr. Bowes' own farms ------
44 MR. JUSTICE BELL: Yes. In fact, that is how I had interpreted
45 it. It is quite right to make the point that the business
46 may -- you had interpreted it as meaning the Bowes as
47 farmers themselves?
48 A. They also seem to be slaughterers and they took in,
49 I think, a large proportion at one point -----
51 MR. JUSTICE BELL: Yes, I am not asking you to argue the
52 matter. When you agreed that Bowes had never used dry sow
53 stalls, you were agreeing in so far as the Bowes family'
54 farms themselves were concerned?
55 A. Yes.
57 MR. RAMPTON: It is entirely what I meant. When I said the
58 Bowes' business, I meant his family farms and his contract
59 finishers. I did not mean the 60 per cent of pigs that he
60 buys in from outside independent producers.