: 1.) What does it mean to be the following:
: a. communist
"To each according to want, from each according to abilities"
: b. libertarian
"Liberty and freedom of thought and action are politically, socially imperative"
People who consider that there is no liberty without huge disparities of wealth, property and power are better refered to as Propertarians.
: c. anarchist
An-archy, archy meaning ruler, an meaning no or without. Socialist characturised by individualitic, anti-clerical and anti-authority principles and impulses.
: d. democrat
In the US I think it's the party of liberal capitalism, generally someone who invests their hopes in representative democracy as opposed to participatory, radical or decentralist democracy.
: e. republican
In the US the party of authoritarian capitalism EG privatise the economy nationalise the people, generally someone who favours the res-publica rule by the public as opposed to dictatorship or monarchy.
: f. socialist
"To each according to their work, from each according to their ability"
: 2.) Why do some societies prosper economically and culturally wheras others don't?
To many reasons to list, must be more specific.
: 3.) What form of order should our society take? By that I mean, should our society be governed by universal laws, no laws except that individuals establish for themselves, or somewhere in between?
An orderly and organised society with law approximating to what is really necessary to provide secuirity of the individual whether that results in authoritarian or libertarian measures.