PROOF OF EVIDENCE
1. I am employed by McDonald's Restaurants Limited as Training Officer. I joined McDonald's in November 1983 as a Trainee Manager, having completed my degree in Modern Languages from Liverpool University. I worked in restaurants as a Second Assistant and First Assistant and spent two years as a Restaurant Manager on Merseyside. In 1989 I was promoted and Joined the Training Department where I have worked ever since. In addition to my responsibilities in the Training Department, which involves me in a great deal of teaching, I have recently been given national responsibility for Food Safety projects.
2. I have read the London Greenpeace leaflet "What's Wrong With McDonald's" which is the subject of this litigation and am familiar with its contents.
1. The precautions which are taken by McDonald's to minimise the risk of food poisoning could be grouped into the following three categories:
1. Specification and care, cleaning and maintenance of equipment;
2. The systems used to store and handle products;
3. The way in which we train managers and all other staff to adopt good hygiene practices.
2. In all McDonald's restaurants anywhere in the United Kingdom the equipment in use in the kitchen is identical. The responsibility for the purchasing of the equipment to our specification rests with the Equipment Department at Head Office in East Finchley, who work closely with the Corporate Department at Oak Brook. The equipment we select is made to our specifications. It is designed to be easy to use, clean and maintain. Nearly all our equipment will have stainless steel surfaces, which is recognised in the catering industry as being easy to clean and, because it is non porous, not a material which promotes the growth of bacteria.
3. The cooking systems themselves are highly automated. There are timers, buzzing lights and other aids which tell our staff when a product has been cooked for the required time and minimise the risk of human error so far as is possible.
4. The cooking times used in the United Kingdom have been fixed by the Quality Assurance Department in conjunction with the Operations Development Department.
5. It is of course important that cooking areas are kept as clean as possible at all times so that there is no build-up of debris which might harbour harmful bacteria. Our overriding principle is "clean as you go" - this prevents any build-up of debris which might harbour bacteria or which might slip down the back of equipment and create a hazard.
6. All equipment is regularly cleaned following a comprehensive plan designed by Head Office set out in a Planned Maintenance Calendar and sets out a detailed schedule which, when followed, ensures that all equipment is regularly cleaned. I attach to this statement at Appendix 1 a copy of the Planned Maintenance Calendar which was in use in 1992 and which, to the best of my knowledge and belief in identical or very similar form to that which would have been in use in 1990. As back up, each restaurant will have a Planned Maintenance Manual which gives detailed instructions on how equipment is to be maintained. The column headed "Card No." on the left hand side of each page of the calendar refers to cards contained in the Planned Maintenance Manual. The letters in the second column denote Breakfast Shift ("B") Afternoon Shift ("A") and Evening Shift ("E") respectively. The figures on the extreme right of the Calendar headed "Perform Time (Min)" sets out the amount of time which each task should take.
7. Each restaurant should also devise its own daily and weekly "pulling rota" which plane in advance when a particular piece of equipment is moved and the area behind it and upon which it rests is thoroughly cleaned. These daily and weekly rotas are usually based closely on the Planned Maintenance Calendar.
8. The good maintenance of equipment also has its part to play in preventing food poisoning. For example, if freezers in which products were kept became too warm, products could thaw and, if refrozen, could be undercooked. The Planned Maintenance Calendar requires restaurants to take a proactive approach to equipment so that maintenance tasks are carried out before anything goes wrong. In addition, there has always been a system of regular calibrations of cooking equipment, measuring the temperature at which products are cooked, and checking that the automatic timers are accurate so that there is no risk of undercooking. Attached as Appendix 2 is a copy of the Calibration Checklist in use in 1990. All calibration checks set out in the sheet were required to be undertaken weekly.
9. I am aware that for the purposes of this action, McDonald's has accepted responsibility for the outbreak of food poisoning in Preston in January 1991. As far as I know there has never been any other such incident in the U.K. since McDonald's commenced business here in 1974. Although neither the source nor the cause of the Preston incident was ever clearly identified McDonald's decided that they should take comprehensive measures to ensure as far as possible that no such incident should occur in the future. First even more rigorous calibration checks were introduced. These must be conducted daily. Attached as Appendix 3 is a copy of the checking programme now in force.
10. Following the Preston incident, we increased cooking times for beef products. However, it is fair to point out, I believe, that we reviewed the cooking times for beef and other products from time to time. To illustrate this, I attach as Appendix 4 and Appendix 5 a copy of the Quality Reference Guide booklet in use in restaurants in the years 1990 and 1991 respectively. This booklet was intended as a source of reference for managers which summarises the important factors in ensuring safety and quality of products. It can be seen on page 3 of each of the booklets that from 1990 to 1991 the recommended cooking time for 10 to 1 patties and quarter-pounder patties was increased by 2 and 6 seconds respectively. Following the Preston incident, the cooking times were lengthened still further.
11. Our overall aim is to make sure that our products are stored and handled in an environment which is as safe as possible. Most of our products are delivered frozen, stored frozen and cooked from frozen.
12. The beef patties used in our sandwiches are delivered frozen. They are initially stored in our main walk-in freezer at a temperature between -18°C and -23°C. By way of comparison, most domestic freezers used in kitchens at home will operate at -18°C. Patties are delivered in cardboard boxes, each of which is marked with a shelf life and wrapped in plastic to minimise dehydration. If the patties have not been cooked within the time set down they will be discarded.
13. To ensure that stock rotation is efficient, a specific "5 stack" method is used in the stockrooms so that all boxes are stored on a "first in first out" basis and also receive an even airflow - this is important because if all the frozen products were stacked in one corner of the freezer that might have an effect on the temperature of the frozen patties themselves.
14. The stock is also organised so that products which are the most susceptible to temperature abuse are stocked in the coldest area of the freezer, which will generally be the area furthest away from the doors.
15. In some restaurants there is, in addition, a holding freezer at the entrance to the kitchen in which one shifty worth of product can be stored. Thin freezer is also operated at between -18°C and -23°C.
16. Immediately before use, the patties will be transferred, either from the walk-in freezer or from the holding freezer, to a grill-side freezer which is situated immediately along side the grille on which the patties are cooked. This grill-side freezer is also kept at -18 degrees C to -23 degrees C. Once patties are transferred into this freezer they have a holding time of 2 hours. Unless they are cooked within that time they must be removed from the freezer and discarded.
17. In the cooking process, the frozen patty is transferred directly from the grill-side freezer to a grill surface. By 1990 most of our restaurants were operating "Clamshell" grills, which had replaced the open grills formerly in use. The temperature which the patties are cooked is 350° Fahrenheit on the bottom platen and 425° Fahrenheit on the top platen. There are set specified cooking times for the different products - the set time for quarter pounder patties, which are larger and thicker, is longer than the 10:1 patties used in Big Macs, Cheeseburgers and Hamburgers.
18. The system of storage of the frozen product is exactly the same as that described in relation to beef with one exception. Immediately before use the chicken patties are transferred from the main freezer into "reach in" freezers located by the side of the fryers. These freezers are kept at -18°C to -23°C. As with the beef, chicken patties have a two hour shelf life after being transferred into the reach in freezer.
19. The chicken patties are then deep fried from fully frozen at a temperature of 360° Fahrenheit for specified times.
Pork (for McRibs)
20. The storage system for pork is exactly the some as for beef - the same holding freezers are used at the side of the grill and the products are handled in precisely the same way.
THE TRAINING OF STAFF
21. A new crewmember, on his first day at McDonald's, is not allowed anywhere near any food product until he or she has completed the initial training programme which McDonald's call the "Orientation".
22. The new crewmember will sit down in a classroom environment with an Assistant Manager or an experienced crewmember who has been trained to train.
23. This orientation is the first step in a new crewmember's training programme ("CTP"). Attached to this statement as Appendix 6 is a copy of the crew training programme file which is kept in every restaurant and which must be implemented in all our restaurants. This file sets out in detail the training systems which are used now and which were used in 1990.
24. At pages 12 - 23 of the CTP there is set out introductory notes for the manager taking the orientation and then a script for the manager taking the session to follow. The references on the right hand side of the page are to the relevant pages of the Crew Handbook.
25. After checking and reviewing the application forms, the new crewmember is taken through the Crew Handbook. An at 1990, the Crew Handbook issued in 1989 would have been current.
26. I believe it will be clear from the content of the orientation notes that a high priority is given to making the new crewmember aware of his responsibilities to serve food safely and hygienically. See, for example, the paragraphs of the script numbered 9; 14; 15; 20;-and 23, which is the Fire Health and Safety Test, which I will describe in more detail below.
27. In addition, the Crew Handbook stresses hygiene matters. In the current edition, see pages 5; 18; 20; 21; (paragraph d); and 56. All parts of the Handbook should be covered at the orientation and time must be given to crew members to read through the Crew Handbook and absorb its contents.
28. An important part of the orientation is the Fire Health and Safety Test. No crewmember in allowed to work in the kitchen until they have satisfactorily passed this test, which is administered in the orientation.
29. Pages 18-23 of the Crew Training Programme contain very detailed guidance notes for the person taking the class. At pages 24 to 28 is a sample of the test with the answers completed. The questions which have a direct relevance to the prevention of food poisoning are at numbers 23 to 30; 33 and 36.
30. A new crewmember then receives intensive on the job training on each "station" in the kitchen. Their training should follow a set plan so far as possible. The system of on the job training, both initial and on-going, is set out at pages 4 - 6 of the Crew Training Programme.
31. On the Job training is conducted by a member of the management team or a crew member on the "training squad". A training squad member is someone who has proved his competence on all jobs which a crew can be asked to perform and has been trained to train. In the initial stages a new crew member is constantly watched and is not allowed to work unsupervised unless they have passed two observation checklists. The pass mark is 90%. (I will comment on the contents of OCLs in more detail below). In addition, to complete their initial training on a set area a crew member must attend a class relevant to that station. When that class has been successfully completed they are awarded a star for their badge. There are five possible stars to be gained. The stars give crew members more status and it is a mark of achievement which, together with performance in OCLs and their performance generally, is taken into account on their performance review on which in turn their pay reviews are based.
32. No crew member ever ceases to be trained. They are regularly assessed using OCLs by the management staff and marks gained on their OCLs are always taken into account on performance reviews.
33. Examples of the materials used in the Unit Tests described above are contained in the CTP. For example, the notes for a class on dressings and buns is at pages 40 - 43 inclusive. The relevant test, with answers completed, is at pages 44 to 48. In the class notes, note the many and constant references to good hygiene practices - see the notes numbered 11; 17; 29; 30; 31; and 32. In the notes of the test, note questions 7a; 9b; 16b; 24; and 25.
34. At pages 62 to 65 are the notes of a class which covers work in the backroom areas and, specifically, awareness of hygiene standards in the store. Note that, as the notes record, this class is merely a consolidation of material which should have been become ingrained during the course of on the job training. Copies of the test questions and answers are ad pages 66 to 69.
35. Attached to the Crew Training Programme at pages 116 and 117 are examples of Observation Checklists for dressings; and backroom. Note that in each case good hygiene practices must be assessed.
36. To conclude, I believe that no crewmember could work at having been thoroughly trained in hygiene practices so that the risk of food poisoning is minimised as far an is possible.
37. We like to promote from within wherever possible. Once a crewmember has gained all five stars, he or she can gain promotion to the training squad. If they show effective leadership skills in that role they can be promoted further to floor manager, with responsibility for running the kitchen or the dining area, responsible for perhaps six to eight crewmembers and reporting to the shift running manager. If they make a success of that they may apply to become a salaried manager and enter the management development programme.
38. A substantial proportion of management trainees who enter the management development programme have risen through the ranks in this way. These days, the majority of our trainees come from outside the company, and many of these are graduates.
39. Also attached to this statement as Appendix 7 is a copy of the Management Development Programme which is now in operation and which was implemented with effect from April 1992. Although we constantly try to develop our management training programme, with few exceptions (which I will specify below) this leaflet describes the training programme which wan in operation in late 1989 and early 1990.
40. The steps that a trainee manager passes through on the programme are set out in a flow chart at page 3 of the MDP leaflet.
41. The first stage of the training programme is the basic training of Management Developement Programme (Volume 1) ("MDP 1"). The trainees start with the basics. All managers must learn all crew functions and pass through all the tests described above in relation to crew training -including, for example, the Fire Health and Safety Test. The basic management functions of the job are taught on the Job by the restaurant manager to whom they are assigned. This initial basic training period lasts between 12 and 16 weeks.
42. Towards the end of that period the trainee in sent on a one day basic food hygiene course which is held at one of the training centres at East Finchley, Salford, or Sutton Coldfield. Details of the content of this course are at page 7 of the MDP leaflet. It is approved and certificated by the Institution of Environmental Health Officers and by the Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene. Successful candidates receive the Basic Food Hygiene certificate which is a recognised national qualification.
43. They then have to take and pass an entrance exam, consisting of 200 multiple choice questions on operational procedures, including questions on hygiene and Health and Safety matters, before they are put forward for the Basic Operations Course which is held at the Head Office training facility in London. The course lasts five days.
44. The purpose of and syllabus for the BOC course appears at page 8 to 13 of the MDP booklet. This edition of the MDP leaflet assumes that, prior to entering the BOC course the student has passed the Basic Food Hygiene course. In 1989, the Basic Food Hygiene course was not held separately but was an integral part of the BOC.
45. Trainees who successfully pass the BOC then advance to MDP volume 2. Part of their training is carried out on the job by the restaurant management. The areas covered are summarised on page 14. The "floor control" section contains some subjects highly relevant to food safety; they are trained how to complete a hygiene audit at the restaurant and a cleanliness report, and how to check calibrations and equipment and, in general, learn how to look after the equipment.
46. In addition to this on the job training, at the appropriate stage of their development they would be sent on various courses at Head Office, including a First Aid course, and the Intermediate Operations Course (IOC) which is described at pages 17 to 20 of the MDP leaflet. (This provides for the basic food hygiene course to be taken by any manager who may have not taken this as a separate course but took the old style BOC). It is on this course in particular that they are trained how to administer the crew training programme which I have described above - see page l9 of the MDP leaflet.
47. The Business Management Course is designed for First Assistant Managers (managers who act as deputy to the Restaurant Manager). This concentrates on financial control and personnel management skills.
48. The Applied Equipment Course will usually be taken by First Assistant Managers and is described at pages 24 - 30 of the leaflet. It emphasises the importance of proactive planned maintenance of equipment, as I have described it above. It trains managers to develop the confidence to undertake detailed maintenance on their own equipment. It also deals with safety aspects. Every restaurant in the UK will have at least one if not two salaried managers who have successfully passed this course.
49. If the trainee gains promotion to Restaurant Manager, they will undertake the Advanced Operations Course, a five day residential Course, which is described at page. 31 - 36 of the MDP leaflet.
50. Another Course which is relevant is the Advanced Food Hygiene Course described at pages 47 and 48 of the MDP leaflet. It is undertaken by selective middle and senior management in each area of the company. It is taken by Mr Paul Povey, a former Environmental Health Officer who now lectures extensively in food hygiene matters, and has a distinguished record in food safety, (for example, he was once the Officer responsible for hygiene and food safety in Smithfield Market) and is taught to undergraduate level. To gain this certificate students must, among other things, undergo a 15 minute oral examination conducted by a serving Environmental Health Officer.
HEALTH AND SAFETY
51. The Training Department has an important part to play in maintaining the high standards of Health and Safety in the restaurants and in developing ways in which our procedures can further be improved.
The Training of Crew
52. No crew member is allowed on the floor without first passing the Fire Health and Safety Test which I have described above.
53. In addition, Health and Safety in emphasised throughout the on the job training process which I have also described above. Health and Safety matters are dealt with in many of the Observations Checklists used to assess crew throughout their career. For example, the Observations Checklist for fries requires the assessor to check that a crewmember does not leave a frozen product hanging over the vat, which might present a hazard should ice come into contact with boiling hot shortening and to avoid the risk of anything falling into the vat to splash shortening over crewmembers.
54. Similarly, aspects of Health and Safety are dealt with at each stage of the Trainee Management Programme.
55. Each new Trainee Manager will, in MDP (Volume 1) be trained in all task that the crew are asked to perform, and will similarly have to undergo and pass the Fire Health and Safety Test before being allowed on the floor.
56. On the Basic Operations Course they are made fully aware of their responsibilities for the Health and Safety of crew and customers. This is emphasised at page 13 of the MDP leaflet. This emphasises that Health and Safety problems should be tackled before all other tasks in running a shift. All managers are sent on a 4 day First Aid Course.
57. The Intermediate Operations Course covers the company's legal obligations regarding the reporting of accidents - see page 18 of the MDP leaflet.
58. The Applied Equipment Course, which I have described above, also enhances our managers' ability to care for the health and safety of customers and staff. In particular, it deals with principles of electrical safety - see page 26 of the NAP leaflet.
THE IMPLEMENTATION AND SUPERVISION OF TRAINING
59. Part of the responsibility of every restaurant manager is to ensure that all staff, both crew members and salaried management, have been properly trained in accordance with the Company's requirements. In carrying out this responsibility restaurant managers are closely supervised by the Operations Department hierarchy.
60. It is the responsibility of the restaurant manager to record the progress of training in his restaurant in various documents. A system under which an overall amendment of the true training programme can be made is set out at pages 95 to 99 of the Crew Training Programme. The forms which must be completed by restaurant managers and made available for inspection by supervisors are at pages 97 to 99. The "bottom line" figure is a percentage which represents the current training grade of the restaurant. As a rule of thumb, we expect each of our restaurants never to slip below grade "B", which requires a training grade of 80% or above.
61. Each of our restaurant managers are closely supervised on training procedures in use in the restaurant (and, indeed, on all aspects of the store's operation including health and safety procedures) by an Operations Supervisor. An Operations Supervisor will typically be responsible for all aspects of the operations of a group of four or five restaurants. Depending on how well a particular restaurant was running, each restaurant manager can expect to receive a visit from his supervisor at least once a week. Inexperienced restaurant managers may receive more frequent visits.
62. Generally, each visit by a supervisor will be targeted on a specific area of the store's operations: eg., hygiene standards, health and safety, or training. In addition, effectively training will always be monitored on each visit since proper training of staff will enhance all aspects of the storms operations.
63. The Operations Supervisor will always wish to be aware of the current training grade of each of his restaurants. He will also check the training logs at least once a month. He will in turn supply the Operations Manager, to whom he reports, the details of current training grades for each of the restaurants for which he is responsible.
64. In addition to these regular on-going checks by the Operations hierarchy, very detailed and comprehensive audit of levels of training in restaurants is conducted in an annual "full field". A group of Operations Supervisors from a different area will visit a restaurant, unannounced, to audit all aspects of the operation to observe the running of the restaurant in detail, filling in Observation Checklists on all crew, during the whole of the day. Training is one of the aspects of the operation which is checked. All training records, including OCLs and training logs, are audited. Standards of hygiene, health and safety practices, speed and quality of service are among the other aspects of the operation which are closely monitored. The restaurant in given a detailed grade on all aspects of the operation. Attached to this statement as Appendix 8 is an example of the documentation which is completed by those undertaking the full field during the course of the day.
65. Although members of the Training Department do not visit restaurants on a formal basis, in practice members of the Department regularly visit restaurants, sometimes accompanied by an Operations Manager or Operations Supervisor, to assess how training systems which we have devised are operating in practice and to provide any necessary assistance to restaurant managers to make their training more effective. 66. On average I visit a restaurant about 4 times a month. If I or my colleagues see that aspects of the restaurant's training are not as good as they should be, I will contact the Operations Supervisor and ask him to sort the problem out.
67. As at 1990, a very small number of our restaurants were operated by licensees. As at today's date there are over 60 licensees and it is the company's intention to expand the licensing programme. This does not mean, however, that the high standards of training which I have described above are not implemented in those restaurants run by our licensees.
68. The licensees themselves are thoroughly trained. Currently, approximately 40% of successful applicants are long standing employees of McDonald's who have been employed for 10 or more years. As such, they obtain the necessary finance from the company, which is repaid from the net proceeds of the restaurant. It follows that it is in their financial interest to ensure that standards in the restaurant are kept high.
69. Approximately 60% of successful applicants are external candidates. Typically, they will be successful business people who satisfy the company that they have the appropriate attitude and financial backing to take on a licence.
70. Successful candidates in either group are known as "registered applicants" and undertake a detailed training programme. Those who already have considerable experience in the operation of the restaurants will typically be given additional financial training and some refresher training. Each registered applicant will have a "bespoke" training programme devised for them by the Training Department and the Field Services Department whose role I describe below.
71. External applicants take the whole of the Management Development Programme which I have described above. There are no short cuts - they must pass the entire programme.
The role of the Field Services Department
72. This department is the link between McDonald's and its licensees. Each franchisee will have a Field Consultant from the Field Services Department assigned to his restaurant. Each Field Consultant is an experienced Operations expert with wide experience in the Operations Department, and will look after 6 or 7 franchised restaurants. In London and the South Field Consultants report to the Regional Field Service Manager, Trevor Bull, who reports directly to the Company's Regional Manager, John O'Dwyer. In the Midlands the Field Consultants report directly to the Regional Manager, Frank Stanton. In the North Field Consultants report to the relevant Market Managers, and in Scotland the Field Consultant reports to the Market Manager.
73. The formal goal of staff in Field Services Department is to represent the business interests and protect the financial investment both of franchisees and of McDonald's. Their basic objectives are to build sales, optimise profitability, and to improve and protect the McDonald's brand name They advise, help, cajole and persuade as appropriate and also act as a channel of communication to feed back to the company good ideas developed by licensees which can assist McDonald's as a whole.
74. If a licensee were to let operational standards slip - such as hygiene standards, health and safety standards or training standards for example, it would be the responsibility for the Field Consultant to identify the problem and help the licensee to put it right. They must protect McDonald's good name and the quality of the brand. Each licensee contracts with McDonald's to maintain McDonald's high standards.
75. Licensees must maintain records of training, and have them available for inspection, in the same way as restaurant managers described above. Similarly, they are subject to an annual full field audit which is operated on exactly the same basis as described above.
76. In my experience, licensees are very active in seeking assistance and involvement from relevant departments at McDonald's Head Office. It is certainly true of the Training Department.
STYLE OF MANAGEMENT IN THE RESTAURANTS
77. The Defendants in this case appear to allege that the style of management actually used in our restaurants is authoritarian and essentially exploitative of the workforce. From my own experience of the Operations Department I believe this comment to be inaccurate and unfair. That is not how we train our managers to manage.
78. Quite apart from other considerations, to create an oppressive or unhappy atmosphere would not make business sense. McDonald's restaurant cannot work without good team work. We want all those who work for us to have fun at their work. If they enjoy what they do then the high standards of quality service and cleanliness and value which we strive will be attained. Customers will also be encouraged to return. If the staff at a restaurant are enjoying themselves at work, I believe that this is communicated to customers.
79. I will refer now to relevant parts of the Management Development Programme (Appendix 7).
80. Basic human relations communications skills are covered in detail on the Basic Operations Course ("BOC") which is described above - see pages 8 to 13 of the MDP, especially at page 10. We emphasise that managers should respect the crew and encourage their development. They should create an atmosphere of good team work and of fun. We do not want there to be a division between "officers and other ranks" within the restaurant. We also train to avoid the use of "personality statements" in enforcing discipline. To take a simple example, they are trained to avoid saying things such as "you are lazy, you have got a lousy attitude" - they should say instead, "you have come in late twice this week, why? Please put it right". These communications skills are dealt with for a whole morning on the course and is one of the first topics dealt with. This reflects the fact that so much flows from good communication within a restaurant including high standards of hygiene, health and safety and training.
81. On the MDP 2, within the "Human Resources heading" (see page 14 of the MDP) qualities of leadership are discussed. The Second Assistant Managers who attend the course are asked to analyse their own leadership styles and make them aware of the dangers of either being too democratic or too autocratic. They are taught that an over autocratic style falls short of our ideal.
82. On the IOC there is long session on recognition skills - pages 17 and 18. Three hours are spent on the topic of "recognition". Maslow's "Hierarchy of Needs" is an academic study on which part of the course is based. It deals with how best to motivate the employees. We train crew members to recognise characteristics of an individual employee so that they can identify how best to motivate that individual.
83. We return to this topic on the Business Management Course ("BMC") - see page 22 of the MDP.
84. The subject of leadership is dealt with in depth on the Advanced Operations Course (AOC) - see pages 31 to 36 of the MDP, particularly at page 34 under the heading of "Leadership". When we refer to Self-esteem we deal not only with the manager's own self-esteem but of the skills needed to build the self-esteem of all employees. Similarly, in dealing with stress management managers we not only train to recognise and control their own stress but to recognise the symptoms in others and deal with it before it becomes a problem.
85. Four hours of the course is spent examining a "managerial grid" - see page 36. The managerial grid referred to was developed by two academics, Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton, and identifies 5 styles of management. A copy of the documents which are covered on this part of the AOC are attached to this statement as Appendix 9. It is particularly interesting to note the style of management identified under the heading "Authority - obedience" in the bottom right hand corner of the grid. This style is said to be characteristic of "a manager acting on these assumptions who concentrates on maximises production by exercising power and authority, and achieving control over people by dictating what they should do and how they should do it". On the following page there is set out a number of suggestions for change for "the autocrat". This vividly illustrates the point, I believe, that we train our managers at all stages of their career to avoid an autocratic approach. The ideal for which we strive is summarised under the heading of "Team Management" in the top right hand corner of the grid and is as follows: "Work is accomplished by committed people; interdependent through a "common stake" in organisational purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect".
86. Until 1990, this session was part of the AOC. Nowadays, it was dealt with on the BMC which in undertaken by First Assistant Managers.
87. Leadership is also the topic of a one day Seminar which has been devised for Operations Supervisors and senior management to develop their skills, and is also available to experienced store managers. This is described at page 49 of the MDP and is largely self-explanatory. It is based on the very successful book the "One minute Manager" written by Ken Blanchard. As with all the other training I have described, the emphasis is on supporting and encouraging subordinates, rather than oppressing or exploiting them.
88. I understood that it is effectively being alleged by the Defendants in this litigation that McDonald's places undue pressure on managers and staff in the restaurants by encouraging them to under staff. This suggestion is false. Our overriding concern is to maintain the highest standards possible in all aspects of a restaurant's operations, including in particular quality service cleanliness and value and which in turn involves the high standards of hygiene, training and health and safety. It is maintaining those standards which makes a restaurant profitable. If a restaurant does not have sufficient staff to maintain the standards, it will lose sales. Any short term benefit gained in the saving of staff costs would quickly be overridden by a long term drop in sales and profitability.
89. This point is emphasised to managers at all stages of their training, and particularly on the BOC and in the MDP
January 12, 1994|
Exhibit for John Atherton|
exhibit: For John Atherton