We All Live in Bhopal
(1990 leaflet)

We reprint this mid-'80s article from the Detroit paper FIFTH ESTATE. The Bhopal residents are still campaigning for financial 'compensation' from the Multinational Union Carbide. Meanwhile, there was uproar in '88 in Alaska against the EXXON tanker oilspll which destroyed wildlife for hundreds of miles of sea and beaches. Also, after mass protests in Europe against the toxic waste ship 'Karen B', many African countries have now refused to accept industrial toxic waste being dumped there. The British workrs (transport, sea, docks) who refuse to dump nuclear waste in the sea has led to a world-wide ban. And also led to further opposition (blockades) to land dumps by villagers.

Ozone, rainforests, polluted seas, radiation - moneymaking. THIS IS WAR.

We All Live in Bhopal

The cinders of the funeral pyres at Bhopal are still warm, and the mass graves still fresh, but the media prostitutes of the corporations have already begun their homilies in defence of industrialism and its uncounted horrors. Some 3,000 people were slaugtered in the wake of the deadly gas cloud, and 20,000 will remain permanently disabled. The poison gas left a 25 square mile swathe of dead and dying, people and animals, as it drifted southeast away from the Union Carbide factory. "We thought it was a plgue," said one victim. Indeed it was; a chemical plague, an industrial plague, Ashes, ashes, all fall down!
A terrible, unfortunate, "accident," we are reassured by the propaganda apparatus for Progress, for History, for "Our Modern Way of Life." A price, of course, has to be paid - since the risks are necessary to ensure a higher Standard of Living, a Better Wy of Life.
The Wall Street Journal, tribune of the bourgoisie, editorialized, "It is worthwhile to remember that the Union Carbide insecticide plant and the people surrounding it were where they were for compelling reasons. India's agriculture has been thriving, briging a better life to millions of rural people, and partly because of the use of modern agricultural technology that includes the applications of insect killers." The indisputable fact of life, according to this sermon, is that universal recognition that ndia, like everyone else, "needs technology. Calcutta-style scenes of human deprivation can be replaced as fast as the country imports the benefits of the West's industrial revolution and market economics." So, despite whatever dangers involved, "the beneits outweigh the costs." (12/13/84)
The Journal was certainly right in one regard - the reasons for the plant and the people's presence there are certainly compelling: Capitalist market relations and technological invasion are as compelling as a hurricane to the small communities from whichthose people were uprooted. It conveniently failed to note, however, that the countries like India do not import the benefits of industrial capitalism: those benefits are exported in the form of loan repayments to fill the coffers of the bankers and corpoate vampires who read the Wall Street Journal for the latest news of their investments. The Indians only take the risks and pay the costs; in fact, for them, as for the immiserated masses of people living in the shanty towns of the 'Third World, there areno risks, only certain hunger and disease, only the certainty of death squad revenge for criticizing the state of things as they are.

Green Revolution a Nightmare

In fact, the Calcutta-style misery is the result of Third World industrialization and the so-called industrial "Green Revolution" in agriculture. The Green Revolution, which was to revolutionize agriculture in the "backward" countries and produce greater rop yields,has only been a miracle for the banks, corporations and military dictatorships who defend them. The influx of fertilizers, technology, insecticides and bureaucratic administration exploded millennia-old rural economies based on subsistence farmng, creating a class of wealthier farmers dependant upon western technologies to produce cash crops such as coffee, cotton and wheat for export, while the vast majority of farming communities were destroyed by capitalist market competition and sent like rfugees into the growing cities. These victims, paralleling the destroyed peasantry of Europe's Industrial Revolution several hundred yeaars before, joined either the permanent underclass of unemployed and underemployed sl! um dwellers eking out a survival on the tenuous margins of civilization, or became proletatrian fodder in the Bhopals, Sao Paulos and Djakartas of an industrializing world - an industrialization process, like all the industrialization in history, paid fo by the pillage of nature and human beings in the countryside.
Food production goes up in some cases, of course, because the measure is only quantitative - some foods disappear while others are produced year round, even for export. But subsistence is destroyed. Not only does the rural landscape begin to suffer the cosequences of constant crop production and use of chemicals, but the masses of people - laborers on the land and in the teeming hovels growing around the industrial plants - go hungrier in a vicious cycle of exploitationm while the wheat goes abroad to buyabsurd commodities and weapons.
But subsistence is culture as well; culture is destroyed with subsistence, and people are further trapped in the technological labyrinth. The ideology of progress is there, blared louder than ever by those with something to hide, a cover-up for plunder an murder on levels never before witnessed.

Industrialization of the Third World.

The industrialization of the Third World is a story familiar to anyone who takes even a glance at what is occurring. The colonial countries are nothing but a dumping ground and pool of cheap labour for capitalist corporations. Obsolete technology is shippd there along with the production of chemicals, medicines and other products banned in the developed world. Labor is cheap, there are few if any safety standards, and costs are cut. But the formula of cost-benefit still stands; the costs are simply borne y others, by the victims of Union Carbide, Dow, and Standard Oil.
Chemicals found to be dangerous and banned in the US and Europe are produced instead overseas - DDT is a well-known example of an enormous number of such products, such as the unregistered pesticide Leptophos exported by the Velsicol Corporation to Egypt hich killed and injured many Egyptian farmers in the mid-1970's. Other products are simply dumped on Third World markets, like the mercury tainted wheat which led to the deaths of as many as 5,000 Iraqis in 1972, wheat which had been imported from the US.Another example was the wanton contamination of Nicaragua's Lake Managua by a chlorine and caustic soda factory owned by Pennwalt Corporation and other investors, which caused a major outbreak of mercury poisoning in a primary source of fish for the peopl living in Managua.
Union Carbide's plant at Bhopal did not even meet US safety standards according to it's own safety inspector, but a UN expert on international corporate behaviour told the New York Times, "A whole list of factors is not in place to insure adequate industral safety" throughout the Third World. "Carbide is not very different from any other chemical company in this regard." According to the Times, "In a Union Carbide battery plant in Jakarta, Indonesia, more than half the workers had kidney damage from mercury exposure. In an asbestos cement factory owned by the Manville Corporation 200 miles west of Bhopal, workers in 1981 ere routinely covered with asbestos dust, a practice that would never be tolerated here." (12/9/84)
Some 22,500 people are killed every year by exposure to insecticides - a much higher percentage of them in the Third World than use of such chemicals would suggest. Many experts decried the lack of an "industrial culture" in the "underdeveloped" countriesas a major cause of accidents and contamination. But where an "industrial culture" thrives, is the situation really much better?

Industrial Culture and Industrial Plague

In the advanced industrial nations an "industrial culture" (and little other) exists. Have such disasters been avoided as the claims of these experts would lead us to believe?
Another event of such mammoth proportions as those of Bhopal would suggest otherwise - in that case, industrial pollution killed some 4,000 people in a large population center. That was London, in 1952, when several days of "normal" pollution accumulated n stagnant air to kill and permanently injure thousands of Britons.
Then there are the disasters closer to home or to memory, for example, the Love Canal (still leaking into the Great Lakes water system), or the massive dioxin contamination at Seveso, Italy and Times Creek, Missouri, where thousands of residents had to bepermanently evacuated.
And there is the Berlin and Farro dump at Swarts Creek, Michigan, where C-56 (a pesticide by-product of Love Canal fame), hydrochloric acid and cyanide from Flint auto plants had accumulated. "They think we're not scientists and not even educated," said oe enraged resident, "but anyone who's been in high school knows that cyanide and hydrochloric acid is what they mixed to kill people in the concentration camps."

A powerful image; industrial civilization as one vast stinking extermination camp. We all live in Bhopal, some closer to the gas chambers and to the mass graves, but all of us close enough to be victims. And Union Carbide is obviously not a fluke - the posons are vented in the air and water, dumped in rivers, ponds and streams, fed to animals going to market, sprayed on lawns and roadways, sprayed on food crops, every day, everywhere. The result may not be as dramatic as Bhopal (which then almost comes toserve as a diversion, a deterrence machine to take our mind off the pervasive reality which Bhopal truly represents), but it is as deadly. When ABC News asked University of Chicago professor of public health and author of The Politics of Cancer, Jason Epsien, if he thought a Bhopal-style disaster could occur in the US, he replied; "I think what we're seeing in America is far more slow - not such large accidental occurrences, but a slow, gradual leakage with the result tha! t you hav excess cancers or reproductive abnormalities."
In fact, birth defects have doubled in the last 25 years. And cancer is on the rise. In an interview with the Guardian, Hunter College professor David Kotelchuck described the "Cancer Atlas" maps published in 1975 by the Department of Health, Education an Welfare, "Show me a red spot on these maps and I'll show you an industrial center of the US," he said. "There aren't any place names on the maps but you can easily pick out concentrations of industry. See, it's not Pennsylvania that's red, it's just Phildelphia, Erie and Pittsburgh. Look at West Virginia here, there's only two red spots, the Kanawha Valley, where there are nine chemical plants including Union Carbide's, and this industrialized stretch of the Ohio River. It's the same story wherever you lok."
There are 50,000 toxic waste dumps in the United States. The EPA admits that ninety per cent of the 90 billion pounds of toxic waste produced annually by US industry (70 per cent of it by chemical companies) is disposed of "improperly" (although we wonde what they would consider "proper" disposal). These deadly products of industrial civilization - arsenic, mercury, dioxin, cyanide, and many others - are simply dumped,"legally" and "illegally," wherever convenient to industry. Some 66,000 different componds are used in industry. Nearly a billion tons of pesticides and herbicides comprising 225 different chemicals were produced in the US last year, and an additional 79 million pounds were imported. Some two per cent of chemical compounds have been tested or side effects. There are 15,000 chemical plants in the United States, daily manufacturing mass death.

All of the dumped chemicals are leaching into our water. Some three to four thousand wells, depending on which government agency you ask, are contaminated or closed in the US. In Michigan alone, 24 municipal water systems have been contaminated, and a thosand sites have suffered major contamination. According to the Detroit Free Press, "The final toll could be as many as 10,000 sites" in Michigan's "water wonderland" alone (4/15/84).
And the coverups go unabated here as in the Third World. One example is that of dioxin; during the proceedings around the Agent Orange investigations, it came out that Dow Chemical had lied all along about the effects of dioxin. Despite research findings hat dioxin is "exceptionally toxic" with "a tremendous potential for producing chlor-acne and systemic injury," Dow's top toxicologist, V.K.Rowe, wrote in 1965, "we are not in any way attempting to hide our problems under a heap of sand. But we certainly o not want to have any situations arise which will cause the regulatory agencies to become restrictive." Now Vietnam suffers a liver cancer epidemic and a host of cancers and health problems caused by the massive use of Agent Orange there during the genocidal war waged by the US. The sufferings of the US veterans are only a drop in the bucket. And the dioxinis appearing everywhere in our environment as well, in the form of recently discovered "dioxin rain."

Going to the Village

When the Indian authorities and Union Carbide began to process the remaining gasses in the Bhopal plant, thousands of residents fled, despite the reassurances of the authorities. The New York Times quoted one old man, who said, "They are not believing thescientists or the state government or anybody. They only want to save their lives."
The same reporter wrote that one man had gone to the train station with his goats, "hoping that he could take them with him - anywhere, as long as it was away from Bhopal." (12/14/84) The same old man quoted above told the reporter, "All the public has gn to the village." The reporter explained that "going to the village" is what Indians do when trouble comes.
A wise and age-old strategy for survival by which little communities always renewed themselves when bronze, iron and golden empires with clay feet fell to their ruin. But subsistence has been and is everywhere being destroyed, and with it, culture. What ae we to do when there is no village to go to? When we all live in Bhopal, and Bhopal is everywhere? The comments of two women, one a refugee from Times Creek, Missouri, and another from Bhopal, come to mind. The first woman said of her former home. "This as a nice place once. Now we have to bury it." The other woman said. "Life cannot come back. Can the government pay for the lives? Can you bring those people back?"
The corporate vampires are guilty of greed, plunder, murder, slavery, extermination and devastation. And we should avoid any pang of sentimentalism when the time comes for them to pay for their crimes against humanity and the natural world. But we will hae to go beyond them, to ourselves; subsistence, and with it culture, has been destroyed. We have to find our way back to the village, out of industrial civilization, out of this exterminist system.
The Union Carbides, the Warren Andersons, the "optimistic experts" and the lying propagandists all must go, but with them must go the pesticides, the herbicides, the chemical factories and the chemical way of life which is nothing but death.
Because this is Bhopal, and it is all we've got. This "once nice place" can't be simply buried for us to move on to another pristine beginning. The empire is collapsing. We must find our way back to the village, or as the North American natives said, "bac to the blanket," and we must do this not by trying to save an industrial civilization which is doomed, but in that renewal of life which must take place in its ruin. By throwing off this Modern Way of Life, we won't be "giving things up" or sacrificing, ut throwing off a terrible burden. Let us do so soon before we are crushed by it.


Greenpeace (London) office: 5 Caledonian Rd. London N1 The Chemical Industry

The Chemical Industry

Greenpeace (London) Factsheet September 1980

The Chemical Industry


Why the chemical industry? The anarchist/pacifist movement has traditionally been radical in initiating and campaigning about issues and problems to which others have paid little or no attention. Whether in the field of environmentalism, nuclear power, comunity work or Third World problems of development, we have been amongst the first to point out the problems and attempt to find solutions. As a group we have started to examine the chemical and petrochemical industries. Often, in the course of our work, e have come across relationships between the nuclear, chemical and petrochemical industries. On the corporate side of our research work, we have seen relationships that link all these industries to the state's military machine. This has happened too many imes for us to believe that the problems resulting from militarism and the nuclear industry can be solved in isolation.
In many respects we have some idea of the problems involved in dealing with these industries, based upon a knowledge of the nuclear power industry. Still, we need to look at the problems involved and do more research into them, so that we can isolate the reas which we feel should be the foccus of our attention. This outline can only cover a few of the areas to be examined. Later it is hoped that more will be done to further this work.

Harwell and the chemical industries - and other nuclear-chemical links.

This will point out some of the connections between the chemical industry and our anti-nuclear work:-
a) Harwell is where much of the UK Atomic Energy Authority research takes place.
b) Harwell is the base for the National Chemical Emergency Centre; it is also where a quarter of the R&D (research and revelopment) for the Chemical and Minerals Research Board takes place.
c) The UKAEA also undertakes R&D relating to chemical and physical analysis, pollution studies and 'non-destructive testing'.) One of the most common arguments of the nukillerites is that we need nuclear power because we're going to run out of oil (and ol-based chemical feedstuffs), and must conserve it for future generations. Our counter-argument is that we're also concerned about the waste of oil and oil products and are doing something about it. If this counter-argument is going to be successful, we mst spend more time working on ideas of alternative, non-exploitable energy supplies.


Pesticides are chemicals and other agents used in controlling insects (insecticides), weeds (herbicides), fungi (fungicides) and other pests. Most of them are chemicals. Chemical pesticides have to undergo about five years of testing before being registerd and marketed here and overseas. During this time the chemical is tested for toxicity and persistence (the time taken to lose it's toxicity). While a few pesticides are banned in Britain, this does not prevent them from being manufactured here and sold oerseas to countries in which they are not banned, notably the Third World. This adds to the dependence of these countries on the developed countries.
The industry is of course big business. Corporations such as ICI, Wellcome and Fisons are manufacturers of these chemicals. Biological control agents such as certain bacteria are also being made up and sold by ICI and co., rather like the development of slar energy devices by the big energy companies. Many of the pesticides in use eliminate natural predators which play a major part in controlling various insects - and thus more insecticides are needed to control the insects that would normally have been cntrolled by ladybirds, dragonflies or certain wasps. This means more profit for the producers of the chemical. (For further details on pesticides please see 'Pesticides' Factsheet).

The Drug Industry

The drug industry is a multi-million dollar enterprise. There are a large number of companies involved, such as Beechams, Wellcome, ICI ... New drugs are developed all the time, usually very similar to previous drugs but maybe slightly more selective. The all have to be licensed but this is no problem as long as the manufacturers can prove that their new drugs are different to others already on the market, and useful.
The drug companies spend a vast sum of money in promoting their drugs in medical magazines such as the British Medical Journal. Many also distribute thousands of calendars, pens and suchlike with the company's name on them to doctors, and thus promote ther products. Most people probably don't realise how much money and time the drug companies spend in promoting their products in this way. Not surprisingly it is difficult to go to the doctor and not come away with a medication of some sort. Of course the dug companies also spend money on the general public telling us how much we need aspirins, indigestion tablets, etc.. It really works - the consumption of analgesics is astronomically high. Women are seen as the ideal target for tranquilizers or anti-depresant drugs and doctors are pressurized by the drug industry to prescribe these types of drugs to women as a matter of course, no matter what problem or illness the woman has.

Toxic Wastes

This includes a wide variety of chemicals from various industries. Some are discharged straight into rivers with waste water; for instance, this happens with paper making plants in which mercury is discharged. When one considers run-off from pesticides an heavy metals like cadmium that also find their way into rivers, it is not surprising that water pollution occurs.
The other means of disposal is by burying the waste in tins. This can provide major hazards for the workers concerned. The wastes are often discarded into domestic tips, sometimes without containers, or without truck drivers knowing that they are handling dangerous waste materials. Highly toxic wastes are disposed of in this way, including some low-level radioactive waste. Unfortunately at the moment disposal of toxic waste comes under little scrutiny and has no proper controls.
It's only right that we end this section with a mention of Canvey Island. As we are a group based in London, what goes on around the Thames Estuary concernes us directly. A report on the dangers of Canvey Island's concentration of chemical plants was prodced by the Health and Safety Executive two years ago - remember, Canvey Island is the place where an IRA bomb went off near an oil refinery not long ago. The island is also in the blast area of a ship, sunk off southend, which has a cargo of unexploded bobs.

Petro-chemical Industry

While examining the nuclear power industry we have uncovered many links between those corporations that either supply or constitute the chemical, petro-chemical or nuclear industries. Exxon (Esso), Shell, Gulf and Vickers are but a few of the corporationsinvolved in the field; and they're not the only ones.
There are many military connections with the petro-chemical industry - for instance, naphalm being made from petrol. And you may remember the Seveso tragedy in Italy. Hoffman La Roche failed to tell the Italian authorities that they were manufacturing dioin at Seveso - and there were dire consequences when some was accidentally released. But did you know that the Americans were using dioxin as a herbicide in Vietnam? (See CBW factsheet for further details). All the above-stated facts lead to concern, but as the fossil-fuel industry (oil and coal) supplies the chemical industry, we should examine them too. Other results from the fossil fuel problem include the dangers resulting from tanker explosions, mining isasters and pipe line failures - impacts both visual and environmental.

Social and Political Conclusions

The overall ramifications of the chemical industry cannot however be measured in terms of what is cause and effect. Related to it are the problems of the Third World, food production, marine pollution, Minimata disease, the state of our cities, the air webreath and the way we live. To ignore the chemical industry is to ignore the state of our own lives, for which we need to take responsibility.

Selected Bibliography.

Seven Sisters - Anthony Sampson. Comet. 1975
Oil and World Power - Peter Odell. Penguin. 1970
The Toxic Metals - Anthony Tucker. Earth Island. 1972
Chemicals - HMSO. Central Office of Information pamphlet no.151
Energy - HMSO. Central Office of Information pamphlet no. 124
Rage Against the Dying - Elizabeth Sigmund. Pluto 1980
We all Fall Down. - Robin Clarke. Penguin. 1986
Silent Spring - Rachel Carson. Penguin. 1963
The Pesticide Conspiracy. Robert Van der Bosch. Prism. 1980
The Medicine Men. - Vernon Coleman. Arrow. 1975
Financial Times
Lloyds List
New Scientist
Army anti-recruitment leaflet produced for stalls and protests in 1984.

Army anti-recruitment leaflet produced for stalls and protests in 1984.

The Military's job is to protect (and increase) the power ands wealth of rulers - civil servants, industrialists, politicians, landowners, judges and other undesirables.
While armies slug it out around the globe, fighting over oil, land and power, arms trading companies sell to all sides and rake in the money.

Working-class people are conned into joining-up by lies about 'travel', learning a trade, the 'glamour' of a uniform, comradeship etc....or join because it's the only job they can find.
Once in, they're deliberately treated like shit to make them 'tough' (not thinking about other people), and to make them know their place (at the bottom). They have to obey orders without question, and ultimately kill or be killed by strangers.

But the British rulers are not only sending people to fight wars in Ireland and elsewhere, they are also using them to scab on strikes here, and to be a reserve force in the background if police violence fails to intimidate those of us taking action (indutrial action, demonstrations, no-go area, or whatever we do for ourselves).

The military prop up a system which exploits everyone, causes hunger, destroys nature, and now threatens to exterminate us all.

Don't join the Army (and discourage others from joining) - join the people who are struggling to improve their lives and to change this society. We're fighting for a world where we all share what there is, what work needs to be done, and the decision-makig. A world where there will be no uniforms or orders of any kind - a sensible anarchist society. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE Factsheet about chemical and biological warfare produced by London Greenpeace in 1980.


Greenpeace (london). 6 Endsleigh St, London WC1

Factsheet July 1980



The official debut of chemical weaponry onto large-scale war was in August 1914 when the French introduced tear gas grenades fired from rifles. The Germans started using various poisonous gases (chlorine, phosgene and mustard gas) in October 1914 followedby the British in 1915. In 1925 the Geneva protocol was signed by 38 states and has since been ratified by all major world-powers. Basically the Geneva protocol prohibits "the use in war of asphyxiating poisonous or other gases and all analogous liquids, aterials or devices" and "the use of bacteriological methods of warfare". @I (see below). This protocol did not stop the Italians using mustard gas against Abyssinia in 1935-36 but it may have been partly responsible for the fact that has was hardly used t all in the Second World War. In more recent years, poison gas has been employed in the Yemen and the U.S.A. have used chemical agents, i.e. tear gas, herbicides and defoliants (Agent Orange -245 T), in Vietnam. Biologic! al methods of warfare have never been used on a large scale.

Types and Effects

The chemical arsenal has developed considerably since the mustard gas of the First World War. Chemical weapons can be classified under three main headings:

1). Incapacitators - LSD, BZ, DMT, STP etc. These are intended to put soldiers out of action for a period of several hours or days but with a low probability of death. However incapacitators have been found unsatisfactory for large scale warfare and have een more or less abandoned.

2). Harassing agents - tear gases such as CS, CN, DM. CS gas is currently used in riot control and was used by the U.S.A. in the Vietnam war. It's effects are: extreme burning sensation of the eyes and copious flow of tears, coughing, difficult breathing nd chest tightness, involuntary closing of the eyes plus sinus and nasal drip, nausea and vomiting.

3). Nerve gases - tabin, sarin, soman, VX. The nerve gases are easily the most lethal component of any chemical arsenal. Their effects are: intense sweating, filling of the bronchial passages with mucus, bronchial constriction, dimming of vision, uncontrolable vomiting and defecation, convulsion and finally paralysis and respiratory failure. Death from acute nerve gas poisoning is caused by asphyxia which will generally occur within a few minutes.
Other types of chemical weapon not used directly against people include the herbicides and defoliants.
It is difficult to discuss biological weapons because, since the biological weapons convention of 1972, officially no further biological weapons have been produced and existing stocks of weapons were destroyed. However before this convention such diseasesand viruses such as bubonic plague, anthrax, botulism, cholera, and many others were being investigated, produced and stockpiled.
There are two important difficulties involved in the control of CBW. There is no dividing line between chemical or biological weapons or between incapacitating and lethal weapons. This obviously hampers attempts to produce legislation prohibiting forms ofCBW.

The Undesirability of CBW.
All weapons are undesirable and inhumane, but CBW manages to produce horrors all of it's own. These fall into three groups:

1). Unpredictability. It is difficult to gauge the after effects of many chemicals. For instance between 1962 and 1971 10 Million gallons of herbicides containing dioxin (collectively referred to as Agent Orange) were sprayed by American troops to strip aay Vietnamese jungle cover. It is now suspected that Agent Orange has had serious effects on Vietnamese veterans and their children - such as cancer and birth defects. This is currently being fought out in American courts. Similarly biological weapons coud upset the balance of nature and have prolonged effects - as on Gruinard, an island of the coast of Scotland, which was used to test bombs loaded with Anthrax spores during the Second World War and has been made unapproachable for a minimum of one hundre years.

2). Inhumanity and Immorality.
CBW attacks people and not property as does the neutron bomb which caused such a public outcry last year. Since civilians are unlikely to be provided with protective equipment and trained in it's use to the same extent of combat units, non-combatants stan to suffer more severely from the effects of chemical attack.
Officially, existing chemical weapons are not designed for strategic purposes, and military doctrine does not envision intentional chemical attacks on civilians. However, clouds of nerve gas vapour could drift long distances downwind of a battlefield befoe becoming harmless and terrain contaminated by nerve gas may remain hazardous long after fighting in the region has ended. Battlefield chemical weapons thus carry with them an immense potential for causing civilian casualties. It can be estimated that ontarget Sarin contamination, intended to cause 20% casualties among soldiers carrying respirators but not at first wearing them could, under weather conditions frequent in central Germany, kill unprotected people 20 KM or more downwind and seriously incapaitate people out to about twice that distance. Civilian casualties in the order of millions could result from battlefield chemical warfare in Europe.
We can only guess at the possible destruction of human lives caused by biological warfare, but the widespread effect of Myxomatosis on rabbits introduced on a small scale in Australia in 1950 gives some indication.
CBW attempts the reverse of humanitarian medical research by trying to make diseases more virulent and people more susceptible.

3). Danger of Accident.
Even in times of peace CBW research threatens our safety. In 1968, 6,000 sheep died at a CBW testing range in Utah after a leak of poison gas. As long as CBW research continues, even if only as a 'defensive measure', civilians will be in danger.


There are several international controls on CBW of which the two most important are the Geneva Protocol of 1925 and the Biological Weapons convention of 1972. Some nations accept the Geneva Protocol as an absolute prohibition, others, including the U.S.A. Britain, France, the U.S.S.R. and China, view it as a no first-use agreement, having formally reserved the right to retaliate in kind if the protocol is violated by an adversary. The Biological Weapons Convention came into force in 1975 and it bans the ue, production and possession of biological weapons.
What force do these agreements have? An 1979 an outbreak of anthrax killed hundreds of people at Sverdlovsk in Russia. The U.S.A. have expressed doubts over the Kremlin's explanations that the deaths were caused by infected meat, and there are suspicions hat they might have been caused by an outbreak of germ warfare material. This is simply one of the indications that CBW continues in spite of the Geneva Protocol and Biological Weapons Convention.
CS gas is not considered by the U.K. or U.S.A. to be covered by the Geneva Protocol. However, chemical riot control is an offshoot of chemical warfare, and the symbolic relationship between the two cannot be ignored. This can be illustrated by the use of S gas in Vietnam to expose Vietnam suspects to gunfire. The British Government made a pathetic attempt to hide this relationship in 1970 by the perverse reclassification of CS gas as a "smoke" despite the fact that the word smoke occurs not once in the orginal patent specification.

The Immediate Situation.

Starting in 1976 the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. have been engaged in a series of bilateral technical discussions in Geneva, aimed at bringing about chemical disarmament, including a ban in the development, production and stockpiling of chemical weapons. One of te main difficulties in these discussions appears to be in reaching agreement on specific verification procedures. The U.S.A. is presently trying to introduce binory nerve gas weapons which combine on impact two non-lethal chemical agents to form a lethal erve gas. In this way controls on stockpiling of chemical warfare agents can be flagrantly breached. This also creates the possibility of cooperation between the chemical industry and the arms industry creating further verification difficulties.
The policy of the U.S.A. regarding chemical weapons appears to be nearing a crossroads. If a satisfactory treaty is obtained, there might be chemical disarmament. Otherwise the U.S.A. may decide to go ahead with the production of new chemical weapons and o make a determined effort to persuade NATO to integrate them into it's 'defence' planning. The frightening alternative is now looming over us with the collapse of talks between the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. There are indications that Britain has been discusing this possibility in recent talks with the U.S.A.
Clearly this is the time for public action on chemical warfare. If delayed much longer we may already have amasses stockpiles of chemicals which then turns the debate into one of disarmament rather than prevention.

@I This treaty does not cover use of CBW within the state- i.e. use of tear gas, etc, against internal dissidents-demonstrators etc-is still "O.K.", Recognising that a state's worst enemy is it's own subjects? dangerous waste materials. Highly toxic wastes are disposed of in this way, including some low-level radioactive waste. Unfortunately at the moment disposal of toxic waste comes under little scrutiny and has no proper controls.
It's only right that we end this section with a mention of Canvey Island. As we are a group based in London, what goes on around the Thames Estuary concernes us directly. A report on the dangers of Canvey Island's concentration of chemical plants was prodced by the Health and Safety Executive two years ago - remember, Canvey Island is the place where an IRA bomb went off near an oil refinery not long ago. The island is also in the blast area of a ship, sunk off southend, which has a cargo of unexploded bobs.

Petro-chemical Industry

While examining the nuclear power industry we have uncovered many links between those corporations that either supply or constitute the chemical, petro-chemical or nuclear industries. Exxon (Esso), Shell, Gulf and Vickers are but a few of the corporationsinvolved in the field; and they're not the only ones.
There are many military connections with the petro-chemical industry - for instance, naphalm being made from petrol. And you may remember the Seveso tragedy in Italy. Hoffman La Roche failed to tell the Italian authorities that they were manufacturing dioin at Seveso - and there were dire consequences when some was accidentally released. But did you know that the Americans were using dioxin as a herbicide in Vietnam? (See CBW factsheet for further details). All the above-stated facts lead to concern, but as the fossil-fuel industry (oil and coal) supplies the chemical industry, we should examine them too. Other results from the fossil fuel problem include the dangers resulting from tanker explosions, mining isasters and pipe line failures - impacts both visual and environmental.

Social and Political Conclusions

The overall ramifications of the chemical industry cannot however be measured in terms of what is cause and effect. Related to it are the problems of the Third World, food production, marine pollution, Minimata disease, the state of our cities, the air webreath and the way we live. To ignore the chemical industry is to ignore the state of our own lives, for which we need to take responsibility.

Selected Bibliography.

Seven Sisters - Anthony Sampson. Comet. 1975
Oil and World Power - Peter Odell. Penguin. 1970
The Toxic Metals - Anthony Tucker. Earth Island. 1972
Chemicals - HMSO. Central Office of Information pamphlet no.151
Energy - HMSO. Central Office of Information pamphlet no. 124
Rage Against the Dying - Elizabeth Sigmund. Pluto 1980
We all Fall Down. - Robin Clarke. Penguin. 1986
Silent Spring - Rachel Carson. Penguin. 1963
The Pesticide Conspiracy. Robert Van der Bosch. Prism. 1980
The Medicine Men. - Vernon Coleman. Arrow. 1975
Financial Times
Lloyds List
New Scientist
STOP 'THE CITY' OF LONDON <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE> STOP 'THE CITY' OF LONDON Stop The City Protest by London Greenpeace. To take place 8am-6pm, 27/09/1984.




The 'City' is a place where the real decisions that affect our lives (and those of people like us all over the world) are made. People once lived in the area, but now it's just packed with the Headquarters of Banks, Companies, multinationals and places lie the Stock Exchange. Billions of pounds change hands every day making profit for a few, whilst millions of people all over the world are starving.Money is made from weapons dealing, destroying nature and generally by exploiting and controlling us all.


During the day there'll be constant protests all over the area, including leafleting, talking to 'City' workers, taking over the streets, street theatre and music etc...

- join in or organise your own events..
London Greenpeace mid 1980s Stop the City Protest. London Greenpeace mid 1980s Stop the City Protest.


Greenpeace (London)
6 Endsleigh St, London WC1

Dear friends,
We wish to inform you about a forthcoming protest on Thursday March 29. The aim will be to halt the "City of London" for the day, the day when profits for the financial year 1983-4 are finally reckoned up.

On September 29 last year, as part of a developing series of protests initiated within the peace movement, the "City of London" was occupied in a partially successful attempt to slow up work in the area, to communicate to city workers about the dealings o their companies, and to create a festive atmosphere.

This time it has been decided to publicise the role of finance, not only in the international trade in weaponry but also in the creation of poverty, ecological destruction, international repression, and in human and animal exploitation. This will be a marellous opportunity for all movements to come together to point to a major source (profit) of the destructive decisions affecting us all. And in so doing we can create an indication of our living alternatives, through spreading ideas and our example.

March 29 is "Harrisburg Day", when the near-catastrophe at the US nuclear power plant is commemorated throughout the world. London Greenpeace are urging all people who are active in opposing the ecological destruction of the world, whether in our own locaities or on another continent, to participate on this appropriate day in the "Stop the City" protest/carnival on March 29, and to get involved in publicising and preparing for a successful day. Together we can save the world.

Love from the London Greenpeace Group

NB Local protests are encouraged in financial areas of towns on March 22, especially those with stock exchange floors - including Bristol, Birmingham, Manchester. NUKILLER WASTE AT EAST SMITHFIELD? Leaflet to publicise direct action against the dumping of nuclear waste at sea. The demonstration was organised by London Anti-Nuclear Alliance, and was one of many such protests in the late 1970s.


Today nukiller waste is being loaded up at Sharpness (on the River Severn), This nukiller waste is being loaded aboard the GEM, a boat owned by Stephenson Clarke Shipping Ltd (a subsidiary of Powell Duffryn). The nukiller waste will then be dumped in the tlantic.
The waste is collected in Berkshire from all over Britain and is brought by rail to Sharpness in standard 12 ton trucks. It is contained in concrete-lined steel drums which are known to break open under water pressure, releasing their dangerous radioactiv contents, before settling on the sea bed. The operation is directed by the UK Atomic Energy Authority.

Stop This From Happening

Today anti-nukiller activists all over Britain are protesting at the loading of the waste at Sharpness. We too are protesting at this callous disregard of our planet's ecosystem, and the short and long term dangers that nukiller waste dumping brings.




For more details contact: Greenpeace (London), 6 Endsleigh St, WC1

(who produced this leaflet as their contribution to this demonstration, which is organised by the London Anti-Nuclear Alliance. July 4 1979 Background Information on the Sami Struggle 1982 factsheet, produced as part of an ongoing solidarity campaign.

GREENPEACE (LONDON) 6 Endsleigh St, London WC1

Background Information on the Sami Struggle

Part 1: History of the Alta Kautokeino Conflict

1968: NVE (the Norwegian Watercourse and Electricity Department) submits a number of alternatives for damning and regulating the Alta-Kautokeino watercourse. Some of these are quite comprehensive, involving regulation of a number of lakes and flooding theMasi area.

1970: The Action Committee against the flooding of Masi is founded. The Standing Committee on Local Government is met by a demonstration of 400 Samis in Masi. The main slogan is: 'We came first. We're not moving'.

1971: Kautokeino local council declares it's opposition to any regulation.

1972: There are Finnish protests against the plans, which will also affect the Tana River which in turn forms part of the boundary of Finland.

1973: The Storting, Norway's National Assembly, passes a resolution for permanent protection of Masi. The Alta Committee for the preservation of the Alta-Kautokeino Watercourse is formed at a meeting of the people in Alta, to spread information about the egulation plans.

1974: NVE's application for the regulation concession is presented for public hearing to the communities affected. The application includes no reports on reindeer husbandry, salmon fishing or natural resources. The regulation entails damming the Alta-Kautkeino watercourse with a 110m high concrete bow dam below Virdnejavri (Lake Virdne), two other lakes and two tributaries. In addition an approach road has to be constructed across the Finmark highlands.

1975: NNV (the Norwegian Society for the Conservation of Nature) appeals the Alta case to Storting's Ombudsman for Public Administration because of deficiencies in the application and inadequate deadlines in which to comment on it. . Lake Ies is withdrawnfrom the development plans.

1976: The local administration of Kautokeino and Alta vote against the development. NVE puts forward a revised application.

1978: Storting's proposition no. 107 is presented by the Government and passed by Storting. Virdnejavri will serve as a reservoir, but the other lakes are to be undisturbed. The Movement Against the Regulation of the Alta-KautoKeimo Watercourse is founded

Jan: A meeting of the people of Alta demands that the Storting's resolution be revised. It is emphasized that civil disobedience will be employed if the demand is not complied with. The Movement receives authority to continue working against the regulatio.
Mar: Local branches of the Movement are formed in Oslo, Tromso and other towns.
June: The Storting rejects, by 109 votes to 34, a suggestion that the development be postponed. NNV takes out a summons against the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy because of inadequate case-handling and incorrect documentation of the case.
Jul: NVE starts work on the approach road to Cavco (pronounced Chow-cho), although permission has not been given. Consequently, as Advocate Dunfjeld points out, the work is not legal, and workers on the approach road are stopped by demonstrators at the zeo-point ('nullpunktet') - the narrowest point of the passage between river and mountainside.
Sep: NNV is awarded the right to bring a suit against the state concerning the legality of the development. The police try to remove demonstrators at Stillaro (nullpunktet), but have to give up.
Oct: 7 Samis set up a tent in front of the Storting in protest against the development, and demand that it be discontinued until the Samis' demand for justice has been clarified by the lawcourts. The Samis commence a hunger strike. Extensive police forcesclear the square in front of the Storting of Samis and sympathisers. The Government decides to postpone construction work for 6 weeks, and the hunger strike is called off. The Storting is to be informed of the Government's further treatment of the decisio to undertake development.

Jan: Under Secretary of State Eskild Jensen, in an interview with 'Aftenposten', one of Norway's biggest newspapers, explains that the Government agreed to reviewing Sami rights, but refused to admit any connection between this and the Alta case. He also laims that the Alta development will lead to loss of pasture for only 7 reindeer.
Mar: Storting's report on Alta is presented, starting the Government on a collision course with the NSR (National Association of Norwegian Samis) and NRL (National Union of Reindeer-breeding Samis in Norway), because it refused to admit the necessity of pstponing development until the proposed report on the Samis' right to land and water was completed.
May: Parliament ratifies the earlier decision to develop.
Jun: The hunger-strikers stand trial, and receive very light fines.
Jul: The Movement invites all 'river-rescuers' to take part in a march over the Finmark highlands, and about 700 people join in the week-long march from Stilla to Masi.

Jan: 10 January the Movement is contacted by someone closely connected with the Government, suggesting that construction work be halted until 1982 - on condition that all actions are called off, and the appraisal case is sent directly to the Supreme Court instead of passing up by appeal from the Local Court to the High Court, and finally the Supreme Court. And the outcome is to be accepted unconditionally by the Movement. The Movement contacts NSR and other opponents of the Alta development, and an agreemnt is drafted. The Government accepts the agreement, but adds that the road is to be built regardless. This makes the offer meaningless: the road would be finished by 1982 in any case, and until it is the dam cannot be built.
14 January construction work begins again - after demonstrators have been cut away from machines with oxy-acetlyene torches and carried away in a massice police action.
24 January Ande Gaup begins a new hunger strike, and is joined successively by Mikkel Eira, Mattis Sara, Per Ailo Baehr and Nils Magnus Tornensis.
Feb: From 2 February a 'lavvo', a Sami tent, is erected outside the Storting each day, and appeals are held. The Sami Movement is founded, and presents it's demands for Sami rights.
3 February G H Brundtland is appointed Prime Minister. Outside the Royal Castle she is met by 14 Sami women from Masi, Alta and Kautokeino, mostly relatives of the hunger-strikers. She gives no answer to the Sami women's pleas to her to stop constructionwork, and so they occupy her office in the Government building, until they are removed forcibly by police in the early hours of the morning.
24 February The Act for the Protection of Ancient and Cultural Monuments opens a loophole by which the Government can avert tragedy without appearing to back down: the first 9 km of the road is to be completed, but no more until an archaeological investiation has been made of the area. The hunger strike is called off after exactly a month.
Summer: The Movement concentrates on information work and fundraising.
Autumn: September 23 and 24 the Alta Hearing is held in Oslo. Experts in fields such as energy, reindeer husbandry, fisheries, conservation, and not least human rights, hold lectures in which a wealth of new evidence is brought to light.
28 September Construction work is started again without warning. Once again an enormous police force is summoned to keep demonstrators away from the construction area, and once again they are housed in a huge ship docked at Alta for the purpose, and visied regularly by hostile folk. The cost of the operation is reckoned to be about 1-2 million kroner a day!
Oct: Despite the issue of official statements by all the Sami organisations, and a desperate plea by reindeer owners based in Masi, construction work moves inexorably on. Despite the fact that it is now mating and migration time for reindeer, which normaly use the area in which construction is taking place for both activities. Attempts to divert the herds from the affected area without upsetting or mingling animals fail, and the result is a cohesive herd of some 25,000 animals which the unfortunate reinder owners have to sort out. NSR breaks off all relations and negotiations with Norwegian authorities.

Nov and Dec: The Movement concentrates on 'pin-prick actions', designed to keep NVE and the police on their toes, and attention on the fact that the road is still being built - although the Supreme Court has still not passed judgement. The case is heard fom 2 Nov to 17 December but the judgement is not expected before mid-February.

January 24 a meeting in Alta will officially dissolve the Movement for the Preservation of the Alta-Kautokeimo Watercourse. The imprisonment of several activists, the threat that the Movement's bank accounts were to be scrutinized, and the enormous finesbeing doled out (4,000 kroner, or about #375 for a first offence of passive disobedience) have made it clear that the Movement's activities have now been criminalized and the Government is determined to push the project through. Instead, an entirely new oganisation, which will consist of a coalition of Norwegians and Samis, with a majority of Samis on the Steering Committee, is to be formed, and will work on a much broader front for Sami rights. The Alta issue will have high priority, but will not be the rimary object.


By Rune Stormo
In the Northern part of Scandinavia, in the area we call "Samiland", a people which has very little in common with the population of the rest of Scandinavia, has lived since time immemorial. The Samis (this is the correct term) can trace their lineage bac to about 8,000 B.C. That is when we find the first signs of habitation in present Sami areas, and we believe they are the traces of a folk which later became part of the Sami people.
From 1,500 B.C. we find traces which have definite links with the Samis of the present day, and their culture - and these traces are to be found in areas which Nordic lands have divided amongst themselves.
The first signs of Scandinavians to appear in our elongated land are relatively old, but it wasn't until 6-7,000 years ago that they reached the coast of Finmark. Their arrival led to increased immigration of foreigners into Sami territory, and the conseuences which ensued.
Taxation and destruction of natural resources were the dominant features of this early colonization, and a sharp contrast to the Samis' ecologically-rooted life-style. At that time, the Samis were subject to taxation by the sovereigns of three countries imultaneously!!!
The Samis have always been hunters. The natural conditions favoured this style of life, even though parts of Samiland lie on the Northern borderline for human habitation. The ocean was unusually rich in fish and other sea creatures, & reindeer & valuablefur-bearing animals were plentiful in the mountains.
The domestication of reindeer, with which the Samis are immediately associated today, did not become an independent means of livelihood until the 16 or 1700's. Though it has rich cultural associations, reindeer husbandry provides the main source of livelhood for less than 10% of the Samis, comprising fewer than 3,000 persons in Norway.
Fishing and agriculture are important means of livelihood in Sami districts, & are commonly combined with living off the (uncultivated) land-berry-picking, hunting and fresh-water fishing. In addition Samis are found today in all varieties of occupations but nevertheless it is true to say that they are principally connected with the primary industries.
Just how many Samis there are today in the whole of Samiland is very difficult to say, but 100,000 is probably a realistic estimate. Of these, about half live on the Norwegian side of the border, 25,000 on the Swedish side, & the rest in Finnish or Russin territory.
The real colonization of Samiland began in 1751, when the border between Norway and Sweden was erected. Later the borders of the other countries were established. In this way, |Samiland & Sami became a land & a nation divided between 4 countries. Many wee forced to make a choice of which country they would live in - which 'nationality' they would bear.
Taxation became more systematic, & the colonists organised a methodical immigration of landless countryfolk from the South. Missionary activity was also intensified during this period, & became an important link in the policy of the authorities.
From this time on, the opposition between the indigenous population & the colonists increased steadily. According to the Scandinavians, the Sami, who as a rule had no fixed dwelling place, could not own land. Recently arrived farmers very frequently setted on land which was traditionally utilized by the Samis, & conflicts arose repeatedly; but the outcome was always the same: the Samis withdrew.
Even today, people with a European background do not understand the type of collective ownership which is so typical of Samis and other indigenous peoples. The result of this form of ownership not being accepted was that the land was regarded as unowned nd open to all.
As the Samis saw it, the land was very far from being ownerless & uninhabited. It was merely that the Sami form of society was so different. The Sami social unit was the "siida", which could consist of from 3 to 4 families, up to a couple of hundred peope. A Siida had at it's disposition a certain area, whether it be ocean or mountain, & had the collective right to the harvest in that area.
At the close of the last century the attitude of the authorities towards the Samis & the other peoples underwent a major transformation. A mutated version of Darwinism - social Darwinism, or vulgar Darwinism - which evaluated all cultures against WesternEuropean norms and cultural values, set the tone for the authorities. The result was that a semi-nomadic culture such as the Samis, with a totally different background and values, was considered to be inferior, and the Samis had either to be driven out orassimilated into the majority society. This view of the Samis prevailed until well into this century; until after World War II, in fact.
The most effective means of assimilating the Samis was the school, Indoctrination of small children, teaching them new cultural values, & at the same time a contempt for their own culture, was an extremely effective way of breaking down the Sami people'sidentity. And during this time the Sami language existed under the most wretched conditions imaginable. It was the specifically expressed goal of the authorities to destroy the basis of it's existence. The same applied to the Sami folk music, 'Yoik', consdered by many musical authorities as one of Europe's oldest.
There are no longer any directly discriminatory laws in existence in the Nordic lands today. But on the other hand there are Norwegian (or Swedish) laws, created for Norwegians (or Swedes). For anyone to be able to live in security in a society, & to benfit from it's wealth, they must have the historical & cultural prerequisite. In practice, this means the same norms that the legislation is based on. And virtually no Samis do. An obvious result is structural repression.
A necessary condition for the future existence of the Sami nation is that the Samis be granted the status of an Ethnic group with the right to maintain and develop their own culture and language, as well as to make decisions concerning their future.
Consequently, it is a great disappointment for us that Nordic countries, which have been in the forefront of several international forums when it came to the legal establishment of the rights of indigenous peoples, both to self-determination & to their on territory, do not live up to their good intentions within their own borders.

Printed for the Sami Support Committee
April 1982 Abolish all State Borders Summary of London Greenpeace and Polish Wonosc i Pokoj campaign to abolish State Borders, circulated late 1980s early 1990s.

Greenpeace (London)......International statement

Abolish all State Borders



States and their Borders obstruct, divide and control people, destroying the freedom of individuals and communities to live and travel where and when they wish. What may seem to be harmless dotted lines across international maps, in fact are real physicalbarriers established and maintained by Government force. Some effects on us are:

* Obstruction at the Border - everyone, when travelling, has to undergo being checked, obstructed, questioned and generally humiliated at each border. People without the 'correct' papers can be turned back (and everyone has to waste time giving personal dtails to Government departments to get these papers in any case). In many instances people are prevented from carrying the items and goods they wish to.

* Dividing the community - Borders artificially split families, with members trapped on either side. Around Border areas, whole communities can be divided, as natural gatherings and association are impossible. Offensive ideas such as racism, nationalism, loyalty to the State' (and sometimes wars) are fostered.

* Controlling the whole population - Governments use their territorial power to try to impose a single language and 'culture' and to suppress diversity within their State - with colonial powers competing to carve up the world to impose this 'culture from he OUTSIDE.

* Outlawing sections of the community - certain sections of the population can be prevented from travelling at all (i.e. dissidents) by being refused a passport. Refugees can be classed as 'Stateless' and forced to live in permanent insecurity or fear of eing deported. Likewise, immigrant populations in general are often made into second-class citizens.

It is clear that all the above disruption and blight of our lives is maintained by the ruling administrations for their benefit. In fact they, themselves, don't allow their borders to affect their activities...multi-nationals, finance corporations, diplomts etc can operate all over the globe, ignoring or circumventing Borders. The results of their activities are also international - pollution, exploitation, hunger....

And of course nature refuses to accept these artificial barriers, and like nature we ourselves need only respect natural differences in geography, climate and ecology of an area, along with respect for freely developed human communities/language etc. We, he ordinary people of the world, don't have to put up with these stupid and oppressive dotted lines forever.


People everywhere object to being controlled, harassed and pushed around....

* Mass defiance and opposition - in some regions, Borders are bitterly hated and attacked, and sometimes therefore |Governments cannot enforce them. This is especially true where there are national and regional liberation movements (Eritrea, Ireland, Kurdstan..). Also, nomadic peoples continue their natural way of life, ignoring civilisation as much as possible.

* Protests - marches to a border (S. Korean students, women in Cyprus...), anti-deportation campaigns, refugees taking sanctuary in churches, secret meetings at remote border locations (by Polish and Czech dissidents), for a people to be united (Basque, Amenians, Kurds..).

* Evasion - S. Vietnamese sail to other countries, thousands ignore the US/Mexico Border every day, individuals clamber over the Berlin Wall, many more (from all countries) forge documents to be able to travel.

We support and applaud all these people, who may not realise they are standing up to a common enemy, despite differing situations.


Many of the above problems and protests happen here. There's the struggle of the people in Ireland to get rid of the British Government (and Army) and it's divisive Border there. There are also the many anti-deportation campaigns here..an example is the lng campaign to support Viraj Mendis, a Sri Lankan political refugee. Viraj was in sanctuary in a Manchester church for over a year, during which there was a wide range of marches, protests and negotiations for his right to stay - finally, in January 1989 0 police smashed their way in - despite an angry and spontaneous march of 2,000 local people, and hundreds of protesters at the London prison and airport, he was deported. But the campaign has inspired dozens of others, educated us all.

We should be aware that the establishment of a W. European Superstate in 1992 is a reorganisation of borders, not their abolition. It will be accompanied by an increase in identity checks. Let's not be conned! Bigger States or World Government will only lad to even greater social conformity and controls. ..ALL GOVERNMENT IS OPPRESSIVE AND NEEDS TO BE ABOLISHED - REPLACED BY SELF-GOVERNING COMMUNITIES AND FREEDOM.


for the free movement of people as they choose


Annual Day Of Protest
- World-wide

At Airports, Passport Offices, Border Posts, Government Departments......

* Friday August 11th (12-2pm)..protest at the Passport Office (Petty France, SW1
* Saturday August 12th (11am)..join the Troops Out of Ireland (20th anniversary) march - Whittington Park, Holloway Rd, N19
* Sunday August 13th..protest venue to be fixed... ORGANISE IN YOUR AREA

Last summer in Poland, members of 'Wolnosc i Pokoj' ('freedom and peace') and London Greenpeace met in Poland and decided to launch an International Campaign for the Abolition of all State Borders, calling for people all over the world, who are fed up of eing obstructed and pushed around by State forces, to support and join in. We proposed 13th August as an Annual Day of Protests for freedom - the day that the Berlin Wall was erected in 1961. Obviously this day is one of great significance for Europe espeially, and we'd support people in other continents if they wished to choose other dates.

On August 13th 1988, both groups issued statements...and members of Wolnosc i Pokoj held a sit-in at the Gdansk Police HQ (passport control dept). The statements were widely distributed after, the Polish one being co-signed by groups in Hungary and Czecholovakia. As it says:
'We initiated the Club of Prisoners of Borders. We invite to our club all people all over the world who meet obstacles in free travelling'
On the 25th February, 9 'WiP' members held a week-long hunger strike/protest for the right to travel, and there were solidarity demonstrations in many countries, including America, and also London - where London Greenpeace protested at the passport office
In London, we've received messages of support for the campaign from 15 countries...as far apart as New Zealand, Canada and Scandinavia. Also, War Resisters International (to which both groups are affiliated) is supporting the campaign from the point of viw of people prevented travelling due to their anti-militaristic activities. In July there will be a huge week-long libertarian festival/conference in San Francisco, entitled 'Without Borders'.
SO PLEASE, IF YOU CAN, JOIN IN THE CAMPAIGN..write to us with messages of support, take action on the Day, issue a press release...and so on. Send us a report!

solidarity from us to you, and all people...
London Greenpeace

Greenpeace (London), 5 Caledonian Rd, London N1
Wolnosc i Pokoj, Klaudiusz Wesotek, U1 Stupska 32/3, 80-392 Gdansk, Poland (Adam/Gosia 058 512548
A Soviet Citizen, Anatol Jaworski, took part in the original discussion to launch the Campaign. Of Polish origin, he had been twice imprisoned for illegally crossing the Soviet border after being refused a passport. At the time he was in hiding in Poland,and due to publicity has now been able to stay there...however, he remains 'Stateless'.

Back to London Greenpeace history