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I believe that the temperate and boreal forests that were the source of the paper used by the McDonalds Corporation in 1989/1990 are & were not fully sustainable, and specifically, were not ecologically sustainable.
As these forests were not ecologically sustainable, I believe that the use of products using material from these forests was self evidently damaging to the environment.
(not available for this witness)
1. Personal Details
1.1. I believe that the temperate and boreal forests that were the source of the paper used by the McDonald's Corporation in 1989/1990 are & were not fully sustainable, and specifically, were not ecologically sustainable.
1.2. As these forests were not ecologically sustainable, I believe that the use of products using material from these forests was self evidently damaging to the environment.
2.1 Temperate and boreal timbers and timber based products make up 90% of timber based products that are traded on the international market.
2.2 Although some positive steps have very recently been made in Canada, The USA, the UK, the former Czechoslovakia, Finland and Sweden to address the ecological sustainability of temperate and boreal- forests, in 1989/1990, the time of the alleged libel, there was virtually no concern for this by governments and forest industries.
2.3 All these country's governments, with the exception of the UK Government, which had been constrained by the potential of privatisation, and many timber trade bodies, now admit to this loss of bio-diversity.
3.1 Forests are more than trees, and the sustainability of forests is thus more than a sustained yield of timber, chips and pulp.
4.1 It is accepted by all sides that the overall forest estate in the temperate and boreal forest areas is increasing, but this forest quantity has only been gained by loss of forest quality, and in particular the loss of bio-diversity.
4.2 Ecological sustainability is one of the many values to be sustained in forests, but in the context of the alleged libel, it is central.
4.3 The United Nations recognises five values that are required to be sustained in forests. These are the ecological, economic, social, cultural and spiritual values.
5.1 The values of sustainability required of forests are detailed in statements signed by the UK Government at the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe, in Helsinki Conference, June 1993.
5.2 The UN's definition of sustainability with regards to forests was agreed in The Forest Principles at the UNCED (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development) Conference in Rio in June 1992 (the 'Rio summit').
5.3. The Rio Summit called for regional conferences on forest protection. The European conference, The Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe, was held in Helsinki, 16-17 June 1993.
5.4. At the European conference, the UK Government became a signatory to the 'Helsinki Resolutions', including Resolution H1 (General Guidelines for the Sustainable Management of European Forests) and Resolution H2 (General Guidelines for the Conservation of the Biodiversity of European Forests).
5.5. Resolution H1, paragraph C, says:
Considering the objectives of sustainable management as stated in the Statement of Forest Principles:
viz. "Forest resources and forest lands should be sustainability managed to meet the social, economic, ecological., cultural and spiritual needs of present and future generations.
5.6. Resolution H2, paragraph B, says:
'Recalling the definition of biological diversity agreed upon in the Convention on Biological Diversity:
viz. "Biological diversity means the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems."
6.1 Governmental and industry concern, and their response and action, over the sustainability of temperate and boreal forests is very recent and overwhelmingly since the date, 1989/1990, of the alleged libel.
7.1 In 1989 there was virtually no international governmental concern expressed over the condition of the temperate and boreal forests, and very little government: concern at national level.
7.2 Government's concerns about forests in 1989 were almost exclusively for tropical forests.
7.3 Criticisms from Third World tropical forest countries that the North should also look to its own forests were forced onto the agenda at the Rio Summit in 1992.
7.4 Recently tropical timber producing countries have demanded that temperate and boreal forests be brought within the remit of a renegotiated ITTO agreement. Northern producer countries have actively resisted this renegotiation.
7.5 Dr. Lim Yeng Yaik, Malaysia's Minister of Primary Industries, and responsible for Malaysian forestry, opening the 14th session of the International Tropical Timber Council in 1993 described it as "...'odd' that no measures to control temperate and boreal timber, which makes up 90% of the international market, were being considered. Expanding the ITTA's scope would erase the exclusive scrutiny being placed on tropical timber, and eliminate the application of double standards between tropical and non-tropical timber".
8.1 There had been much concern over the fate temperate and boreal forests, expressed by local forest protection NGO's, starting in about 1980, but mostly since 1985.
8.2 In June 1992, WWF (the World Wide Fund for Nature) published their influential review 'Forests in Trouble: A Review of the Status of Temperate Forests Worldwide' Ed. Nigel Dudley, alerting the general public to the crisis in temperate and boreal forests.
8.3 The first significant international meeting of the temperate and boreal forest protection and environmental movement was held in November 1992 at Jokkmokk on the Swedish Arctic Circle, and founded the Taiga Rescue Network, which co-ordinates the boreal forest movement.
Up until then, any international co-operation had been on an informal networking basis.
8.4. Since 1989/1990 there has been an increasing realisation that temperate and boreal forests are threatened. At first the governments and timber bodies denied this; now many admit to problems in their forests, and claim to be addressing these concerns. Much of this is hollow rhetoric, but there has also been some genuine and welcome improvements actually 'on the forest floor'.
9.1. Despite these improvements, I doubt that under the economic imperatives that producer governments face in an imbalanced and competitive global timber and pulp market, the intensive management of the bulk of national forest resources can change in a way that will provide full ecological sustainability.
9.2. The competition between the material from 'free' oldgrowth forests and expensive plantation forests, and the political and financial power of the northern forest industries, are two factors on which I base this belief.
9.3. There are, however, a small minority of forests and plantations that are managed now, and have been in the past, with a positive aim at achieving ecologically sustainability. It is inevitable that the material taken from these forests will be more expensive in common financial terms.
9.4. The material is available to those who are prepared to pay this 'green' premium.
10.1. Virgin pulp is a necessary component of paper, as paper cannot be indefinitely recycled.
10.2. The use of recycled paper is welcome as a way of ameliorating, but not preventing, the destruction of oldgrowth or minimising the need for intensive plantation forestry.
10.3. Recycling does not, however, address the basic issue of the present and projected increasing demand for paper and thus for virgin pulp.
11.1 Despite increasing concerns being expressed of the environmental problems and loss of biodiversity in temperate and boreal forests since 1980, there were very few improvements of any sort by the producing countries and their forest product industries until the start of 1993.
11.2 The very recent recognition by governments that there are serious problems in their own forests shows that in 1989/1990 these forests were failing to sustain the environment and biodiversity, so the use of paper products at that, date must be damaging to the environment. Few the proposed changes have yet reached the 'forest floor', so I will further maintain that the present sourcing of paper from these forests remains a damage to the environment.
11.3. There exist, however, some small forests that have been positively managed for many years with a high regard to ecological sustainability.
11.4. Also there are differences in management regimes with regard to ecological sustainability between countries, and often between the public sector and private sector within countries.
11.5. It was thus in the power for major international corporations, such as McDonald's, to have used their purchasing position to make the choice between forests that are either less or more damaging to the environment, and demand that suppliers meet a specification that protects forest biodiversity.
11.6. Some major international companies, and some small local companies have completed this process. Ikka (the international furniture giant) went 'oldgrowth free' in mid 1992, the free-ads London newspaper Loot has stopped using Canadian pulp, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone are considering re-negotiating their contract for telephone directory material with Macmillen Bloedel, who are clearcutting the remaining oldgrowth on Vancouver Island in British Columbia (November 1993), some German companies (Grener & Jahr Verlag, Mondrukk Verlag, Otto Versand Verlag, Axel Springer) who are supplied from Scandinavia ann ounced they were going 'clearcut and destructive forestry free' in December 1993.
11.7. McDonald's have not shown any qualitative judgements between temperate and boreal forest sources with regard to the sustainability and management of the forests that supplied them when purcasing their paper products.
11.8. I conclude that McDonald's use of paper was damaging to biodiversity and the environment, and that this damage was avoidable or could be ameliorated.
1.1 Oldgrowth forests are the forests that have never been touched by people, or in which people have trodden very very lightly.
1.2 In the temperate and boreal forest countries the remaining areas of oldgrowth forest left vary.
1.3 The exact areas are sometimes uncertain, due to problems of definition, but vary from as little as 1% in Finland and Scotland to 60% in the CIS.
1.4 England has no oldgrowth forest remaining.
1.5 'Oldgrowth' does not exclusively or even necessarily contain old trees, but is an expression of a dynamic climax to an ecosystem that has been in existence for many thousands of years.
1.6 Oldgrowth forests are unique, and once felled, cannot be recreated. Extinction, by definition, is for ever.
2.1. Perhaps the most famous oldgrowth forests are the temperate rainforests of the Pacific north--west of the USA, (Oregon and Washington), British Columbia and Alaska. These are no more or less important for biodiversity than those that are less spectacular: they are merely more spectacular to the eye.
2.2. In these forests, trees can be found that range in age from a seedling to 1000 year old trees, and in height from an inch to 100 metres or more.
2.3. Typically, a forest such as those in Oregon will contain a vast number of tree species and other flora, such as Douglas fir, Port Orford cedar, Sitka spruce, Western red cedar, Nobel fir, hemlock, madrone, tan oak, vine maple, alder, Pacific yew, salmon-berries, fireweed and oxalis. Some of these plants are considered to be commercially useful, others are regarded, by the forest industry, as weeds.
2.4. The textbook, The Natural Vegetation of Oregon and Washington, Prof. Gerry Franklin, Oregon State University, lists over 500 major and common species of plants in the two states. Both states are 'forest states'.
2.5. The structures of these forests are varied and complex and untidy: as well as seedlings, saplings, and young and old trees, there will be snags (standing dead trees) and fallen and rotting trees. Some trees, such as the western redcedar, can lie fruitfully rotting on the ground for up to 400 years before they finally return to the soil to mother new seedlings which, grow out of them.
3.1. Among the flora in Oregon's oldgrowth forests there is usually an abundance of fungi, mosses and lichen. Many of these will only grow on trees in excess of 150 to 200 years. Oxyporus Nobilisimus, the world's largest fungi, at 130 kg., and of which only five have ever been found, are exclusive to the Oregon oldgrowth.
4.1. The forests support a vast range of habitat niches, some which are exclusively to very old or dying or rotting trees. The whole generation of red tree-voles, for example, live exclusively at the tops of, and on the needles at the top of, Douglas firs of 150 years of age or more. The flying squirrel lives on a diet of the fungi found in and around old trees, and is, in itself, the mechanism that spread many fungal spores. Many woodpeckers, such as the pilleated woodpecker, require large standing dead trees, in excess of 60 cm. for both thier food and deep nesting holes. The marbled murralet, a 'sea bird' for which the nesting and resting requirements had not been until recently discovered, is now known to need the deep moss on the branches of oldgrowth trees some 5O km. inland. The marbled murralet and the pilleated woodpecker are now considered 'endangered'.
5.1. Significantly, Pacific yew, once regarded as a weed tree, and routinely burned as trash, has been recently found to be the source of the powerful anti- cancer agent taxol. There is no longer enough wild Pacific yew in these forests to provide for the estimated potential US requirement of the drug. Now, at the last moment, inventories of the Pacific yew are being made, and the tree is protected. One reason to maintain full biodiversity in forests is we often don't know what is important until it is too late.
6.1. Oldgrowth has practical use to some native American groups, and their losses affect cultural sustainability. Traditionally, 'totem poles' and ceremonial canoes of some west coast Native Americans are made of western red cedar, because of its ability to naturally resist rot. young and old trees, there will be snags (standing dead trees) and fallen and rotting trees. Some trees, such as the western redcedar, can lie fruitfully rotting on the ground for up to 400 years before they finally return to the soil to mother new seedlings which, grow out of them.
6.2. Trees of a suitable size are becoming scarcer.
6.3. Some ceremonies require the participants travel deep into the forest and spend time there. Continuos large areas of oldgrowth are becoming rare in Oregon.
7.1. I beg that these forests equally have spiritual qualities. I cannot myself walk between a grove of trees that may have been seedlings at the birth of Christ, and not feel humbled and in awe of some greater and older unknown force.
8.1. In Oregon there are some small communities who rely solely on the remaining oldgrowth for their timber related jobs. These timber related communities will die if the oldgrowth supply is cut off by protection measures, unless the State or Federal government intervenes by creating new employment opportunities.
8.2. This is a real cause for concern.
8.3. However, timber jobs exist for these workers in other areas of the USA, and anyone who is familiar with Oregon will know that the State is littered with ghost towns from when logging exhausted most of the 'easy to get at' oldgrowth of the lower valleys at the beginning of the century, or mills closed.
8.4. In the last 45 years in Oregon, the overall timber processed has generally steadily increased while timber related jobs have decreased. (Oregon Department of Economic Development, 1991).
8.5. Improved technology, and plantation forests that are easier to log, combined to reduce employment more than that due to proposed conservation measures.
9.1. Forests provide timber, and timber provides jobs.
9.2. Forests also provide profits for timber companies' shareholders.
9.3. Forests can provide a tax base.
9.6. Forests also keep the rivers well, and in the last
few decades, salmon runs have plummeted in number.
9.7. Clearfelling has the consequence of damaging
rivers. In Oregon, there are concerns about the
clearfelling of the oldgrowth as this is affecting the
industrial and sport salmon fishing of the area.
9.6. Forests also keep the rivers well, and in the last few decades, salmon runs have plummeted in number.
9.7. Clearfelling has the consequence of damaging rivers. In Oregon, there are concerns about the clearfelling of the oldgrowth as this is affecting the industrial and sport salmon fishing of the area.
10.1. Throughout the Northern world oldgrowth forest continue to be logged regardless of the amount remaining in any individual country. Logging is occasionally with selective felling for only the economically most attractive trees, but usually by clearcutting, the removal of all tree on one site, and occasionally clearcutting with whole tree harvesting, where the entire tree, including twigs, branches, the trunk and the roots are removed. Clearcut sizes vary from small areas, say 10 Ha. or so, to hundreds of hectares, depending on the country, state or agency involved. Clearcuts vary from as little as two hectares to hundreds of hectares.
10.2. Once felled, old growth cannot be recreated. The imperatives of return on capital will never allow any seedling to wait 1000 years to become a giant.
10.3. Any clearfelling of these forests must be a loss to the environment, as well a cultural loss, a spiritual loss, a social loss and an economic loss, as they cannot be replaced.
10.4. These forests, once felled, are replaced with plantation or by assisted and controlled selective natural regeneration, to favour a mono-culture of one or two of the most commercially desirable species appropriate to the growing conditions in the area and world markets.
11.1. In the USA, a new philosophy of forest management, 'The New Forestry', is being proposed by renowned forester and biologist Prof. Gerry Franklin. In simple terms, this means leaving a goodly proportion of the existing oldgrowth standing in each area that would be clearfelled, and positively managing the forest for biodiversity. The concept is being grudgingly recognised by the timber industry, and cautiously accepted by some in the environmental movement as a compromise between not keeping oldgrowth forests and some level of protection for their ecological values.
11.2. However, 'new forestry' can only remain a philosophy, and the results of any new forestry will not show clearly for many hundreds of years.
1. Oldgrowth, by definition, cannot be recreated.
2. As it can not be recreated, any loss of oldgrowth is of damage to biodiversity and the environment.
3. Users of paper products have a choice of where their material comes from.
4. Some paper users are making this choice. (See section 2.11.5. Introduction)
5. As McDonald's have offered no evidence that they are making choice in this area, their use of paper must be bad for the environment.
4. Plantation Forestry:
1.1. Plantation forest management regimes vary throughout the world, depending on the nature of the land, the climate, the market the plantation addresses, local forestry regulations and fiscal incentives, land tenure, and whether in the private or state sector, and the degree of local concern for bio-diversity, but there are common threads that can be identified.
1.2. Virtually all of the commercial coniferous forests of Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom, the vast majority of the commercial coniferous forests of the USA, and some forests in Canada, that supply material for paper pulp, are intensively managed plantation forests, or forests that have regenerated after clearfelling, but are now intensively managed. In forests that are naturally regenerated, the processes are similar to plantations, before the natural seeding, and after the natural seeding.
1.3. Depending on the country, the site of the plantation or intensively managed forest will have been previously oldgrowth, (e.g. much of USA, most of Canada), traditionally managed deciduous forests (e.g. England), traditionally managed coniferous forests or oldgrowth (e.g. Sweden and Finland), on land that was once in the far past forested, (e.g. Scotland of 400 or more years ago) or on land that previously had no forests (the Flows of Scotland, the drained peat-bogs of Finland and Sweden).
2.1. The overwhelming bulk of plantations neither represents oldgrowth nor traditionally managed forests in their appearance nor ecology.
2.2 Once an area of oldgrowth, or traditionally managed forest, or existing plantation has been clearcut, or a peat bog has been selected for afforestation, the soil will be prepared for planting.
2.3. Depending on the terrain, the ground will be cleared by fire (USA and Canada), or by scarification, a form of deep ploughing (Scandinavia, parts of the UK). The seedlings are usually planted in straight rows at an even spacing to facilitate thinning and final harvesting, except when the ground is too rocky or rough.
2.4. The seedlings are usually of one or two species, as judged appropriate for the soil, climate and market. In the UK and Sweden, these are usually species native to North America. (e.g. Sitka spruce, Douglas fir, lodgepole pine, etc.). The seedlings may be genetically engineered or selected to increase the commercially desirable qualities of quick growth, good form and disease and pest resistance.
2.5. In order to prevent competition for light and nutrients from the other forest plants that naturally regrow, or to eliminate non-commercial species of trees,. shrubs and ground flora, broadleaf herbicides or on-the- spot weeding is used. Other non-commercial florae naturally die in the dark conditions of many tightly plantations once the canopy closes over. Close spacing of trees is used as a way of eliminating competition of non-' commercial species as well as maximising commercial yield.
2.6. As the plantation matures one or two thinnings are practised, to allow the better growth of the remaining -trees and provide an interim income.
2.7. When commercial maturity is judged to be achieved, the plantation is clearfelled, and the process of clearance and replanting is repeated.
2.8. In some countries, such as Finland and Sweden, the final felling can often remove all of the tree, including stumps, the branches and twigs. This inevitably reduces the nutrient base of the soil.
2.9. The length of the cycle varies with regard to climate. In Georgia, USA, the cycle may be 40 years, in the near tundra of northern Scandinavia, the cycle may extend to 140 years.
3.1. The type of forest that are allowed to regrow after conversion from oldgrowth or the felling of commercial plantation forest, neither resemble the original forest visually, in species composition nor in age structure. It is correct to regard these forests as fibre farms' for the bulk production of timber and cellulose.
3.2. Perhaps the best example of this, as the evidence the an untrained eye will confirm, is when English deciduous woodlands have been converted to coniferous plantation.
3.3. Plantation forests are single species, even-aged, and the management regime encourages the elimination of any other flora than the desired commercial species. The management may require the exclusion, trapping, shooting or poisoning of many animals, either in themselves or as prey. (e.g. in the UK, deer, rabbits, hares, voles and long-tailed mice and many birds, such as the jay and wood-pigeon are considered as pests.)
3.4. The change to a single species intensive plantation forest is sometimes beneficial to some more robust and adaptive species, and at an early stage, may Positively favour animals such as deer and other grazing and browsing animals, though as the canopy closes over, this advantage rapidly disappears.
3.5. However, the change to plantation is of great
disbenefit to those species that are specialist 'niche'
species, due to diverse reasons such as: lack of old
trees (red tree-vole USA) decaying trees, the pilleated
woodpecker, USA), dead trees, fallen and rotten trees
(many fungi, especially Scandinavia, the Pacific
salamander), large trees (the red cockaded woodpecker
USA), winter thermal-cover loss in the early stages of
plantation (moose, Canada), protective cover (the spotted
owl, USA), the reduction of small mammals needed for prey
species (The spotted owl, USA, which preys on red tree-
voles and woodrats), lack of nesting sites (the marbled
murralet, USA and Canada), lack of winter moss-fall
(reindeer, Scandinavia) and other foods such as berries,
bulb roots (badgers and birds, UK) and seeds (whitehead
woodpecker, USA), and bedding material (badger, UK).
Water quality can change with the convertion to
plantation and the building of the road infrastructure,
having more silt from erosion and becoming warmer,
affecting fish populations (steelhead salmon, USA).
3.8. The draining of wetlands and bogs will effect-
those species that find niches in open and boggy country.
3.9. In the USA and Canada, where there are moderate or
large areas of oldgrowth remain, the fragmentation of the
forest eliminates biological corridors through which
animals move to mate or migrate, isolating populations
and preventing genetic diversity within species, or
reduces the territory of an animal (e.g. the goshawk,
USA, which requires a minimum forest range of 1,000 Ha).
3.10. Although individual adaptive species may in the
short term, and sometimes in the long term benefit from
plantation forest or the conversion of oldgrowth to
plantation forest, less adaptive species that require a
'niche' are either reduced or face a threat of
3.8. The draining of wetlands and bogs will effect- those species that find niches in open and boggy country.
3.9. In the USA and Canada, where there are moderate or large areas of oldgrowth remain, the fragmentation of the forest eliminates biological corridors through which animals move to mate or migrate, isolating populations and preventing genetic diversity within species, or reduces the territory of an animal (e.g. the goshawk, USA, which requires a minimum forest range of 1,000 Ha).
3.10. Although individual adaptive species may in the short term, and sometimes in the long term benefit from plantation forest or the conversion of oldgrowth to plantation forest, less adaptive species that require a 'niche' are either reduced or face a threat of extinction.
4.1. There are alternatives to intensive plantation forestry both after conversion of forest from oldgrowth and within existing plantations. These are inevitably cost more in financial terms than intensive methods but are less 'costly' in environmental terms. Selective logging or high-grading, is usually a method where trees are selectively felled for their size and commercial value, leaving smaller trees to grow on to commercial maturity- However, selective logging could be used to increase biodiversity, where trees may be left to grow old, and die, or generally are felled to increase the age range of the plantation. Competing non-commercial tree and plant species can be encouraged rather than discouraged. The cost implications are easy to understand: if 5% of trees are left 'for the forest', 5%. of potential material cannot be sold. Plantation forestry is not an easy profit operation, so there is massive resistance from governments and timber growers against such solutions.
4.2. In the USA, the Menomenee forest, which belongs to the Menomenee Native American tribe is an example of the way a forest has been well managed both commercially and ecologically. The tribes were confined to this forest under the various laws in the USA that set up indian reservations. As this is their only asset, the forest has had to be managed for all forms of sustainability, on a long term basis, as unlike the timber industry, the tribe have no other lands or forests to move to. The forestry operations are profitable, and now are commanding a premium in the market for 'greener' temperate forest material.
1. Plantation forestry as nearly always practised is damaging to biodiversity and the local environment.
2. The increasing demand for paper products is a major force behind intensive plantation forestry, and many forests are now grown with the pulp market as their primary or only market.
3. Paper sourced from plantation forests, in that paper production is a major motive force behind intensive forestry, is damaging to the environment.
5. The Advertising Standards Authority Ltd's (ASA) rulings on the use of the word 'sustainable', and Timber Trades Federation and timber trade press's comments on recent referrals to the ASA.
1.1. There have been an increasing number of complaints to the Advertising Standards Authority Ltd.(ASA) about the use of the word 'sustainable', or similar actual or implied references to sustainability in timber advertisements.
2.1 The ASA requires documentary proof of sustainability claims and imposes the following requirements if an advertiser is to truthfully claim sustainability.
2.2 The ASA requires: "documentation showing that the growth and production of timber causes no damage to the environment"
2.3. and: "ecological sustainability should reflect a system of forest management in resulting in there being no danger whosoever to the environment".
2.4 The ASA recommends advertisers should take note of certain points as a basic guide to ensuring their advertisements are safe.
2.5. "Claims should not be absolute unless there is completely convincing evidence. The term 'environmentally friendly' is said to 'suggest an absolute quality".
2.6. Recently, an advertisement for Finnish plywood for Schauman (UK) Ltd. was referred to the ASA.
2.7. Schauman had used the Finnish Industry's own internal 'Plusforest Logo' with the wording 'Sign of Sustained Forest' underneath it.
2.8. The Plusforest Campaign is the Finnish industry's campaign to tell the public about the Finnish way of forest management.
2.9. The ASA ruled, in a self-admitted 'halfway house' adjudication, that "while the Authority was concerned that any unqualified reference to sustainability could imply absolute ecological sustainability it concluded that in this instance as more trees were regenerated in Finland than were cut down there was no confusion. It nonetheless advised the advertisers to indicate the specific nature of any sustainability in future".
2.10. In an article in the Timber Trades Journal (17 9 93) about the danger of timber advertisements being referred to the ASA, and how to avoid these referrals, Michael James of the Timber Trades Federation's (TTF) hardwood section, and then director of the TTF's 'Forests Forever' environmental defence campaign', is quoted telling a TTF member who's advertisements had been found at fault by the ASA that "the right way is to avoid talking about sustainability. We find it easier to talk about well-managed forests instead".
3.1 The Timber Trades Journal has made a number of editorial comments on the reference of timber trade sustainability claims to the ASA, and has carried articles on how advertisers can avoid a reference to the ASA.
3.2. In an editorial of 17th July 1993, Audery Dixon, the editor, who is also an advisor to the TTF's 'Forests Forever' campaign, discussing ASA referrals, said, "Most people in the thick of timber environmental issues - trade advisers and environmentalists - are agreed that at present, no one can prove 'sustainability'. For one thing, there is no single definition of 'sustainable' in the context of forest management, for another there's no framework for demonstrating that a forest is being managed for long term survival"
3.3. In another editorial in the TTJ of 16 April 94, Audrey Dixon comments on the referral to the ASA of the advertisement for the Finnish forest products company, Schauman UK Ltd. Having generally complimented Finish forestry, Audery Dixon added "perhaps it was unwise for the Plusforest Campaign to adopt the words 'ecologically sustained'".
6.Country Case Studies:
1.2 England has no oldgrowth forest left at all.
2.1 The nearest equivalent is Ancient Semi-natural Woodland, defined roughly as traditionally managed woodland which has been on a site for in excess of 400 years, though at some time prior to that, the forest may have been cleared.
2.2. ASNW contains a genetic bank of material that have been very substantially unmodified by modern intensive agricultural and forestry practices.
2.3. England now has 8% forest cover, of which only 1% (of the total UK land area) is ASNW.
2.4. ASNW is the nearest we have in England to old- growth, but since the Second World War, about half of this has been converted to coniferous plantation. This trend has now been halted, but it was not until the publication of the 'Guidelines for the management of Broadleaf Woodlands' by the Forestry Commission in 1985, in response to public anxiety about coniferisation, that the presumption in favour of conifers was reversed. This policy took two or three years to reach the 'forest floor' due to existing felling and planting licences, which run for five years. Much of these converted woodlands may never recover their previous bio-diversity even if replanted with broadleaf.
2.5. Coniferisation produces an artificial forest. While it is true they can provide good habitat for many of the more adaptable species, one must look to the loss of those species that have more specific habitat requirements. The badger, an animal protected in the UK, will not find coniferous plantations 'badger friendly', as they lack much of the small mammals and roots they feed on in foraging areas, and pine needles are their least preferred of their necessary bedding in their sets. As well as charismatic animals such as badgers and dormice, there is inevitably an overall loss of invertebrate populations. The other side of biodiversity loss is that many pests flourish in monoculture plantations, as the preditors that remove them are not themselves present.
2.6. With this conversion to coniferous plantation, England has lost both half of its ecologically important woods, and has suffered an additional cultural loss as the 'bluebell-filled English woodlands' become dark, unfriendly and biologically impoverished coniferous plantations.
4.1. The UK now (since 1985) probably has some of the best regulations and guide-lines in the world both to maintain sustained yield and to maintain bio-diversity. The changes in the 1988 Budget now make it less attractive to plant on upland heaths and bogs, etc.
4.2. However, these new regulations and guidelines are only just arriving at the forest floor, and will not effect the previous environmental loss of woodland environmental sustainability.
4.3. If a forester is prepared to forgo the Woodland Grant Scheme grant, then he can ignore many of the guidelines. There have been two recent cases in Exmoor National Park this season where new Sitka spruce plantations have been planted.
4.4. Many areas of forest that were converted to coniferous plantation or planted since 1945 under Dedication Covenants are not being returned to broadleaf woodlands after felling
5.1. The Government can dispense with all the regulations that the general public are required to abide by. That they actually chose to do so is a useful test between rhetoric and action.
5.2 The proposal to fell Oxleas Wood in South London, an ancient woodland and also a SSSI, became an international cause celebre for the environmental movement in 1993, and only the most massive public campaign, finally involving environmental groups representing 2,000,000 members, forced the Government into a humiliating U-turn.
5.3.Many other less 'high profile' ASNW's remain at threat or have been felled to pursue government policies. For example, parts of Epping Forest are to be felled within 6 months to construct the Mll Link Road.
5.3. In the High Court in 1993, in the 'Oxleas Challenge Case' the Secretaries of State for Transport and the Environment were challenged over the quality of exchange land at Oxleas wood, when an area of bare land that would be planted with trees was offered in exchange for the ASNW at Oxleas. The expert witness for the protesters, Prof. Oliver Rackham, swore an afidavit, that was accepted against the evidence of the D.o.T.'s own expert witness, that ASNW cannot be recreated in a short period.
7.1. It is clear that policy of the UK government in England has generally achieved sustained and increased timber yield, but has grievously damaged our 'wildwoods', and continues to do so, though to a lesser extent, and has impoverished our environment and the cultural values (the bluebell-filled English woodland) of our woods.
7.2. Although England has one of the best forest policies with regard to the environment and biodiversity, the 'bottom line' of forestry in England remains the production of a timber crop.
7.3. The continuing and increasing demand for paper products makes it difficult for woodlands to be returned to natural forests.
4. Paper products sourced from English plantation forests thus have had, and will continue to have, an adverse effect on the environment and biodiversity.
8.1. 'Coniferisation' and overgrazing by deer.
8.2. Vast areas of Scotland have been forested or reafforested with exotic conifer plantations, sometimes in environmentally totally inappropriate places, such as the Flow Country of Caithness and Sutherland and Southern Scotland, while in other areas, such as Mar Lodge and other sporting estates, excessive deer grazing is preventing the regeneration of the 1% of remnants of the original boreal oldgrowth forest of Scotland. excessive deer grazing, are both damaging, and continue to be damaging to the enviroment.
1.1. Forests still cover one third of the land of the United states, although 30% of the original (pre- Columbus) forests have been completely cleared.
1.2. Of this, 2% is protected in part or fully protected in National Parks and wilderness areas.
1.3. The protected areas are, on the whole, areas that are of little interest to the timber industry as they are in high elevation mountainous areas with great difficulty of access and extraction, and usually have sparse timber cover.
1.4. Protected areas do not represent a full spectrum of US forest types and ecosystems.
2.1. Oregon and Washington are the prime remaining areas of oldgrowth in the lower 48 states of the USA.
2.2. Continued logging of oldgrowth in these areas, both of the coastal temperate rainforests and in the high-desert areas to the east of the Cascade Mountains is having an adverse effect on wildlife.
2.3. All commercially desirable species of oldgrowth trees are being logged. These include Grand fir, Lodgepole pine, Douglas fir, Ponderosa pine and Western larch.
2.4. Some of the animals and birds associated with these tree species that are listed as threatened or endangered are:
2.6. Vaux's Swift.
2.7. This bird is associated with oldgrowth grand fir. The swift nests in the hollows of old trees. One study in the Umaltilla and Wallowa-Whitman forest shows the preference of oldgrowth. 41% of oldgrowth stands had swifts, while only 8% of second growth stands had swifts.
2.8. Another study of Baker, Umaltilla, the Vaux swift's nest sites showed that all were in large diameter decaying oldgrowth trees, hollowed out by Indian Paint fungus. All had entrance holes that had previously been excavated by the pilleated woodpecker, another bird that itself is threatened.
2.10. Northern Goshawk.
2.11. All but 1 of 74 nests studied in Orecon were in dense, mature or old-growth conifer stands.
2.12. The bird's nests can be 1 metre across and 60cm. high. Reasons for concern for the goshawk are the loss of big trees for nesting sites as these are not found in plantations, whicn nave to be 3km. apart, and change of forest composition affecting for foraging.
2.13. White head woodpecker.
2.14. The bird prefers to find insects in the deec bark fur r ows of oidgrowth ponderosa, and forages for seed at tne base of oldgrowth trees which have more cones.
2.14. Pygmy Nuthatch.
They rely primarily on mature ano oldgrowth ponderosa in dense stands. Nests are located in large dead or decayi ng trees, exceeding 50cm. diameter. Such trees are not found in replacement plantations.
2.17. The spotted owl is listed as 'threatened'.
2.18. The spotted owl is a cause celebre of the environmental movement for the listing of the species due to the efforts of environmental organisations, and the use of the Courts of the USA to force the Forest Service to protect the bird, has resulted in a temporary halt to much oldgrowth logging.
2.20. The arguments over environmental protection in the USA have thus often been regarded as 'owls versus loggers'
2.21. The importance of the owl is that it is an excellent indicator species for It is large, dumb and friendly, so is easy to catch, radio-tag and study.
2.22. Many other species, such as the marbled murralet, face greater threat, but studies of them are more difficult to carry out. For instance, the murralet is a smarr, fast moving bird, that flies hign it the tree canopy, and that may travel 100 kilometres in a day.
2.23. 98 of 595 spotted owl nest sites were found in trees n excess of 200 years old.
2.24. The spotted owls prey is closely lined with flying squirrels, tree voles and wood rats, themselves dependent oh oldgrowth.
2.25. Marbled Murralet.
2.26. The marbled murralet is listed as 'threatened' in Oregon, Washington and California.
2.27. The murralet only nests in the mosses of oldgrowth trees of 150 years or more ih ace. Loss Of nesting sites is considered to be the main reason for its decline.
2.26. Bald Eagle.
2.27. The bald eagle is listed as 'threatened' in Oregon under both federal and state acts.
2.28. Their nests have to be in huge trees as they are heavy stick nests about 1.5 metres in diameter on extended branches of the trees. Trees less than 76cm. in diameter can not oe used for nesting.
2.29. American marten and fishers.
2.30. These are prefer oldgrowth areas and are more abundant In mature and oldgrtwth stands. The preference for oldgrowth is attributed to the greater amount Of downed and rotting wood in oldgrowth tnat provides habitat for the small mammals they prey on.
2.31. Other reasons for martins' sensitive status is: declining habitat quad tity and quality due to oldgrowth harvesting, and habitat isolation due to fragmentation of the forests.
2.32. The martin is an 'indicator' species, that indicates the general health of the forest.
2.34. Three-toed woodpecker.
2.35. This is a forest indicator species
2.36. Their sensitive status is due to the removal of mature and insect infested trees, a prime food source, from otherwise suitable habitat, and convertion to young stands that are relatively free of heart rot and barkbeetles.
2.38. The wolverine is listed as threatened in Oregon.
2.39. The main reason for their decline is the fragmentation of the forests. due to clearcutting and their preference for oldgrowth forest types.
2.40. Great grey owl.
2.41. In a study in south Oregon, all 63 nest site were found in mature or oldgrowth trees.
2.42. Elimination Of nest sites and salvage logging of trees infested by mount aid pine beetle are considered the main cause.
3.1. There are concerns for the ecological sustainability of some other US forest areas. These forests are now often intensive plantation forests, as in Scandinavia, although in the North East, the forests often resemble, and have similar problems to, the Ancient Semi-natural Woodlands of England.
3.2. Lacking the spectacular large and old trees, and the acclamation of being oldgrowth, less attention has been paid to the problems of their loss of bio-diversity.
3.3. A major concern of environmentalists In the Southern, Central and Eastern forest areas of the USA is the environmental consequences of the conversion of the existing regenerating forests to plantation aimed at supplying the ever increasing needs of the chip and pulp mills.
3.5. Claims that these forests are massively increasing are true but spurious, as the area was cut over for farmland and then abandoned at the turn of the century. It is not the forest industry that is regeneration these forests, but the strength and fertility of the land. The concern of the environmental movement is that these regenerating forests will be cut again and converted to plantation forests for chips and pulp, rather than being allowed to mature into some approximation to their former glory, further eroding the already severely damaged blodiversity.
3.5.1 There is particular concern that logging cont i nues for TulIp wood (American white poplar in the cove valleys of. the 1% of the remaining old growth of the Central hardwood forest region, which has been sold In the UK as a substitute for a tropical timber, Gelutong.
3.6. Over half the timber cut from public forests is used for industrial pallets, 57? of which are used for one trip only, before being consigned to land-fill.
3.8. TAGAR (Tennessee, Alabama and Georgia for Environmental Responsibility) petitioned the government to produce an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) concerning the siting Of three new chip and pulp mills In the TVA on the Tennessee River
3.9. The Final EIS (1243 pages) concluded that the siting of these mills would be detri_mental to the environment, and recommended that the projects were denied permission. (pers. con. 10th June 94, Denny Haldernann, TAGAR).
3.13. The EIS report deals with the environmental problems of existing forests, presently used for timber, if these were converted to plantations to source a pulp and chip industry. Pulp and chips can use the timber from very young plantation forests with small trees. Pult forests, because Of their short rotation, offer the attractive flnancial advantage of profitabiliy for growers in their own lifetime.
3.11. Under 'ENV IRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES' the EIS Roport states (page 258( "While the proportion Of the forest area providing habitat for seedling, sapling and polestage stands would increase (with one to three chip mills)the opposite would occur for saw-timber size stands. Population of spices requiring saw-timber sIze forests, such as the pilleated woodpecker, cerulean and worm-eating warblers, scarlet tangers and flying squirrels, would decrease under either one, two or three chipmills, with three chlpmills producing the greatest reduction. ..the species requiring sawmill size timber are already decreasing".
4.2. Paper sourced from the USA is thus damaging to the environment.
This country report must be considered in the light of the time of the alleged libel, 1989/1990. Forestry law and guidelines have changed since this time, in part to address the issue of bio-diversity.
5.1. Forests cover some 24 million Ha. of Sweden, about 58% of the land. The majority is spruce and pine, although there are some extensive deciduous woodlands in the South. In the far north the species are mostly willow and birch. North of that the land is virtually treeless taiga.
5.2. The forests provide habitat for large and charismatic mammals such as the bear, moose, herded reindeer and a scattered popultion of wolves, as well as a host of lesser known birds, insects, plants, lichen, mosses and fungi.
5.3. The area and yield of the forest estate is due to low logging volumes, plantation establishment and the abandonment of farm lands.
5.4. However the vast majority of Sweden's forests are now insensitively managed and planted with single, often alien, species after felling.
5.6.2. A general shift from deciduous or mixed forests to one dominated by conifers. (The 'war against the deciduous trees') .
5.6.3 Replacing spruce with pine in the north, with a 20/30% shift seen in the last 30 years.
5.6.4. Rep lacing pine with spruce in the south, as it grows more quickly there.
5.6.3. An increase in the plantation of exotic species, especially lodgepole pine.
5.6.6. Draining swamp forest and replacing it with dry forest's.
5.6.7. This situation was created in part by Sweden industri al forest policy, confirmed by the 1980 Forest Law. The law has now been replaced by the 1994 Forest Law, (see below) a change bought about by environmental pressure and also social and political changes in Sweden. The 1980 Law, in order to support the domestic pulp and softwood industry and reduce reliance on imported timber, required that virtually all landowners sell their forests for timber even if they personally wanted to keep their private land for conservation.
5.8.2 According to the UCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) over 1000 forest living species are threatened (i.e. endangered, vulnerable or rare) Particular concern is being expressed about insectivorous non-migrant birds such as the Siberian tip and the whitebacked woodpecker. But the most threatened groups are invertebrates, lichen and fungi. 330 of 750 threatened invertebrates are forest dependent, as are 115 out of 190 lichen and 360 out of 520 known threatened fungi species.
The effect on the Sami should be considered in the context of the inclusion of 'cultural sustainability' in the Helsinki Resolution.
The effect of road building in forests.
Road building, both for general traffic and logging traffic affects bio-diversity and is a cause of concern. Road building has fragmented otherwise integral forest areas, particularly has affected bears and has opened up remote areas to illegal hunting of endangered species.
6.1 A recent report to the Government suggested that 13% of Sweden's forests be set aside for bip-diversivaty preservation, but the figure could be halved if there were changes in the management of the remaining forest. Nothing like this has happened.
6.2 This proposal, which included representatives from Stora, the giant forest company, is commented on in detail below, by Karin Lindahl of the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation:
6.3 On behalf of a governmental commission a group of three very distinguished scientists, one from the Environmental Protection Agency, one from the University of Agriculture and Forestry (Upsala) and one from the biggest private forestry company, Stora, last year (1992) presented a report which analysed different ways to form a forestry that could fulfil the demands of preserving the biodiversity. As a basis for their work the scientist took the unanimous statement made by the Riksdag (Parliament) in June 1991 "Biological diversity and genetic variation is to be ensured. Animal and plant communities are to be maintained so that species of plants and animals occurring naturally in Sweden have the potenttal to survive in their natural habitat and tn quantities that will ensure their continued procreation"
6.4 The general conclusion of the Scientists was that in order to achieve this political goal within the field of forestry you nave to use and combine two complementary strategies. One strategy Is to change and adapt forestry in general, the other to preserve parts of the forest completely frorn forestry in special reserves.
6.5 The main point of the scientists is that these two strategies are closely connected and to a great extent works like communicating vessels: WIth far reaching adaptation of forestry, the need for new reserves pan be limited. Without further adaptation large areas has to be protected.
6.6 The scientists estimated that if forestry continues like during the 1980's and the political biodiverslty goal were to be fulfilled, the protected forest area below the mountain region had to increase from at present 0.4 per cent to more than 15 per cent, a 40-fold Increase to 3.3 billion hectares. (At present 2.6 per cent of the Swedish forest area is protected, but most of it is concentrated along the mountain range. Below this region only 0.4 per cent is protected. That strategy presumed no ohanges in forestry or actices but enormous investments in nature reserves (15 billion US dollar)
6.7The scientists concluded that this would be an ineffective and expensive strategy and instead recommended a radical modernisation and nature adaptation of forestry In general. A number of industrial methods like intensive clearcuttings, ploughing, introduction of foreign, fast-growing species like the Canadian lodgepole pine and provenience etc. had to be abandoned.
6.8 The general nature considerations had to be improved drastically with increasing frequency of old and dead trees as well as deciduous trees in general, preservation of wetlands, increasing use of natural regeneration, reintroduction of fires, establishment of large scale landscape planning to guarantee the creation of distribution corridors and varied as, the need for new reserves, according to the scientists, could be limited from more than 15 per cent to less than half that area, maybe only five per cent below the mountain region still a tenfold increase from today 100,000 hectares to 1.1millIon hectares.
6.9.2. "The Swedish forest seovator has announced a DeclaratIon of intent signed by forest owners, trade unions and vathe church".
6.9.3. "We recognise that cultivated and tended forests cannot contain all vathe biological qualities and variations that are found in natural forest. However, effeovative and efficient forestry operations can be successfully combined with highly demanding navature conservavation goals".
6.9.4. DespIte all of these good intentions, and vatne passing of the new Swedish Fcresvatry Law in May 1994 to which environmentalists have given a cautious welcome, the rhetoric is often at odds with the acvaticn and oldgrowvath Is still theatened.
6.9.5. The old growth forest in Njakafjall was partly logged this spring (1994).
6.9.6. According to Greenpeace in Sweden, in vathe Forest ¦ndustry's trade magazine 'Skogsindusrienerna' Bjorn Lyngfeldvat, the press officer of the SCA company said of the appalling publicity the felling had bought his company in Germany, a major market: "We simply can't afford another Njakafjall"
6.9.7. "SVDRA-one of the major pulp and paper manufacturers in the south of Sweden-has declared that it will renounce from using old growth wood in its production."
This country r must be considered the light of the time of the alleged libel, 1989/1990. Forestry laws and practices have changed since this time, in part to address the issue of bio-diversity.
9.1.1. Finland is about two thirds covered by forest (66%(; this figure increases to 84% if scrub and wasteland are included.
9.1.2. One fifth of Finland is peatland. Since 1950, half or this has been drained and ditched for plantation forests.
9.1.3. Finland is, with regard to export, the most forest product dependent country in the world, with forest based oroducts making up 37% of export earnings. Pacer and boards are the principal exports. The UK and Germany are the principal countries receiving these exports.
9.1.4. While Finland only has 0.5% of the ftrest land of the boreal regions, the country provides an impressive 5% of all forest products.
9.1.5. About 1 % of Finland's forests can be classified as oldgrtwth, and 2% of Finland's forests are protected In the critical areas of the south, only 0.3% of the forest is protected.
9.1.6. 95% of Finland's forests are intensively managed plantations. ~
9.2.2. There are estimated to be 40,O0O species of plants and animals in Finland; it is estimated that there are 1,692 threatened species in Finland. 43% of these live in the forest, and for 41% the main threat is modern forestry methods. These include species as diverse as the Siberian jay (Perisoreus infaustus), the Peltis grossa beetle and Anylocystis lapponica, a bracket fungi. Most of these are found in oldgrowth forests.
9.2.3 The cause of this decline is the disappearance of oldgrowvath woods and modern forestry practices which provide a different habitat, are the reason for this as these species are dependent on dead and rotting trees for their habitat.
9.3.2. The abstract of the report, The Report on the Monitoring of Threatened Animals and Plants in Finland, says:
9.3.3. "The committee estimates the number of threatened plants and animals in Finland at 1,692."
9.3.4. The abstract continues:
"Regardless of the increasing number or threatened species, the reason ror habitats and populations is nearly the same as earlier. The majority or threatened species, or 43%, live in the forests. By the same reason forestry is the primary cause (in 41% of threatened species) for species being threatened)."
9.4.2. After clear felling, forests are regenerated either by seeding from mother-trees, artificial seeding or by direct plantation. The rotation in the north is some 150 years, the rotation in the south is about 80 years.
9.4.3. Only pine, spruce (and recently) birch are planted or encouraged. The trees found in areas of natural forest after clearing by man, wind or fire, and first colonise these openings are discouraced and weeded out. Among these are goat willow, alder, aspen, rowan, lime, elm, oak, maple and ash, which if they occur, will be removed at seedling stage. Until recently, birch was discouraged, and Finland is now importing birch from the CIS to supply the material for its high quality birch plywoods.
9.4.4. A first and second thinning is undertaken prior to clearfelling, providing a marginal return, but also encouraging the more rapid and well formed growth of those trees left.
9.4.5. The result of this management plan is that it results in an even-aged forest, with very little variation of species, and leaves virtually no dead of decaying trees.
9.4.6. Over half of the former peatiands of Finland have been converted to plantation forest. This has added some 15% to the national annual timber increment. Nonetheless, peatiand drainage has been considered an catastrophic ecological disaster, and the practice, mostly by the small state forestry sector, has been al most halted.
9.5.2. The industry is now addressing the situation. I refer to the well balanced publication, The Green Change, (Finnish Forest Industries Federation, Helsinki, 1993).
9.5.3. In the chapter 5, Biodiversity and Commercial Forests, the authors acknowledge the report on endangered species, and go oh to say:
9.5.4. The current treatment regimes applied to forestry in Finland enhance the visual diversity of the landscape. It should, however, be realised that species that require the conditions of pristine forests will not be able to do so in commercially logged forests that are regenerated at the age of 100 years or so. Endangered biotopes have been protected and more will be so. There is a very clear consensus on the point that in commercially logged forests, too, we must see that endangered species and unique biotopes are preserved. In other words, that environmental aspects are taken into account alongside practical forestry in commercially logged forests.
9.6.2. I believe that paper sourced from Finland, a country that has as government policy, concentrated on high added value paper, in 1989/1990 was damaging to the environment.
REPUBLIC OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA
10.1.1. Information here should be related to the alleged libel in 1989/1990.
10.1.2.base my belief that paper sourced from this area is not from sustainable forests on the reporvat, The Environment of Czech Republic Part II, (1990, The Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic and the Ozechoslovak Academy of Sciences)
10.1.3. There are a number of threats to forests in the former republic. The most significant long term threat is serious air pollution from the neighbouring Ukraine, Poland and former East Germany.
10.1.4. However, there has been continuing overcutting in their rorests, beyond sustained yield levels, both in the socialist era, due to 'the plan', and since that time due to the perilous financial situation in that country since democratic reform.
10.1.7. "Meanwhile the share of productively efficient hardwoods is decreasing, so the planned proportion of "biological" woods providing some resistance of forthcoming forest generations is not allowed." (sic)
11.1.2. Forestry management regimes are delegated to individual provinces. 90% of Canadian productive forest is ownwed by the federal or provincial governments.
11.1.3. The forests provide habItat for large and charismatic mammals such as the bear, moose, cougar, elk and wolverines, as well as a host of lesser known birds, Insects, plants, lIchen, mosses and fungi Among the birds Is the marbled murralet, which is now lIsted as 'threatened'
11.1.4. 90% of forest removal in Canada is by clearcutting. The largest single clearcut is ln British Columbia with an area of 40,000 Ha. (400 sq. km.( . In the past, after clearcutting, the forest was left to regenerate by itself: this has not always happened. Now in British Columbia, half of the land is replanted.
11.2.2. While there are considered to be the usual problems with the conversion to plantation in all areas of Canada, the clearcutting of the North American PacIfic coast temperate rainforests, generally in British Columbia and specifically on Vancouver Island has bought the Canadian Government and forest industry serious international criticism. Temperate rainforests are a unique and minute forest type. Only 0.2% of the world's forests are temperate rainforests. The nature of these forests are basically similar to the Oregon oldgrowth mentIoned in Section 3 of this evidence, the Nature of Oldgrowth Forest.
11.2.3. Vancouver Island used to have 2.3 millIon Ha. of oldgrowth forest By 1990, this had been reduced by two thirds to 0.8 millIon Ha.
11.2.4. In response to massive national and international criticism of what was happening on Vancouver Island, the B.C. Government reviewed the situation in Vancouver Island. This 'Land Use Decision' protected 4.4% of the oldgrowth.
11.3.2. Any paper products sourced from Canada must therefore be damaging to the environment.
It is often claimed (by the timber industry) that clearfelling mimics natural forest fire, and is thus no different than regular natural occurrences in the ecosystem. Forest fires differ enormously in character and intensity. Even in the most severer forest fire, sufficient important elements of the ecosystem are untouched or lightly touched. Very often areas in damp valley bottoms are untouched, with the fire jumping across them. This leave a pool of material that remain locally and can regenerate the forest. In some areas, such as dry the ponderosa pine areas of Oregon east of the Cascade mountains, the trees, mostly ponderosa, nave adapted to fire, with a thick bark. These trees remain after a fire. This is not the case when ponderosa forests are clearfelled
The effects of clearcutting are illustrated in 'Clearcut', a volume of photographs of clearcuts ih the USA and Canada. This volume is submitted as part of this evidence.
A general review of problems of biodiversity loss in Sweden, particularly prior to 1989, is covered in detail in a fax from Karin Lindahl of the Swedish Soiety for Nature Conservation.
A general background to the environmental and biodiversity problems in Finland is illustrated in the publication 'Finland and Forest - a Success Story prepared by an alliance of all the forest protection NGO's in Finland for the Helsinki Conference on European Forests in 1993. This volume is submitted as part of the evidence.
The publication 'Clearcut Sound' from Greenpeace UK documents the environmental issues around Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and is submitted as part of this evidence
12.1. The forest and paper industries of the world will say, correctly, that paper does not destroy the tropical forests. However, they are economical with the truth, for they omit to add that the forest and paper industry are helping to destroy the temperate and boreal forests.
For the birds and beasts that have no voice here.
I beg to speak for the voiceless. The beasts and the flowers and the trees.
I beg to speak for Coyote. I beg to speak for Owl, And the Marbled Murralet.
I beg to speak for Fox and Badger. I beg to speak for Rowan. I must speak for ghosts of English Elm.
I cry for Sitka, Torn from her native home, Transplanted to an alien land Standing lonely, line upon line With her cloned sisters.
I speak for the fungi And the lichen and the mosses.
If I speak for the trees, Then I speak for The seed, The seedling, The sapling. I speak for The commercially attractive tree, Scared of the feller's axe And the older slower tree And the skeltons of snags And the fallen, rotting, dying tree, That fruitfully decays.
The seed becomes the fallen log, Fruitfully decaying, A home for fungi.
And then it starts all over again, again.
|date signed:||10th July 1994|
|status:||Appeared in court|
transcripts of court appearances: